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References / Further Reading

Basic Aquaculture Information Seafood & Health Aquaculture Feeds Aquaculture & the Environment
Shellfish Aquaculture Stock Enhancement   Finfish Aquaculture Offshore Aquaculture
 NOAA/DOC Documents  


Basics Aquaculture Information

Fisheries of the United States - 2012.  National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration; Fisheries Statistics Division;
National Marine Fisheries Service.  2013.
This publication is a preliminary report for 2012 on aquaculture and commercial fisheries and a final report for recreational fisheries of the United States with landings from the U.S. territorial seas, the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and on the high seas. This annual report provides timely answers to frequently asked questions.
Click here to go to this webpage and download the report

The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture - 2012. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Rome, 2012.
The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture serves as a reference on the the global fisheries and aquaculture sectors – including status, trends, issues, and outlook – and contributes to a more complete understanding of the sectors' key role in food production, availability, and security.
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Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): The “Super-Chicken” of the Sea?.  Ole Torrissen, Rolf Erik Olsen, Reidar Toresen, Gro Ingunn Hemre, Albert G.J. Tacon, Frank Asche, Ronald W. Hardy, Santosh Lall. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 19:3, 257-278. 2011.
The current review gives an overview of the development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture and how it has evolved due to changes in legal and management framework conditions. Atlantic salmon production is characterized with high utilization of nutrients, a high yield of production, and a large demand for rendered by-products. It is concluded that Atlantic salmon farming can be compared to raising a marine “super chicken” being among the most sustainable meat products in the world food market.
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Farming the Sea.  Frank Asche. University of Stavanger.  Marine Resource Economics,  Volume 23, pp . 527 – 547. 2008.
Although one must face similar environmental challenges as agriculture, there is no doubt that intensive aquaculture can be sustainable. Moreover, increased food production from the sea can reduce pressure on marginal terrestrial land and deforestation. As the productivity potential in aquaculture is exploited, aquaculture production is set to continue its increase.
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Aquaculture technology.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2012.
Discusses aquaculture technology, techniques, systems, biotechnology, facilities, engineering, and feeds.
Click here to go to this webpage 

American Fisheries Society Journals -- searchable database
The American Fisheries Society Journals page provides access to the following journals:  Fisheries, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, North American Journal of Aquaculture, Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science, and Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
Click here to go to the searchable webpage

Policy and Governance in Aquaculture: Lessons Learned and Way Forward. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Hishamunda, N.; Ridler, N.; Martone, Elisabetta. Rome, 2014.
This paper summarizes some of the issues facing general aquaculture governance, current “best practices” and potential challenges for the future.

Click here to view the document



Seafood & Health

Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Consultations: 2010.
The purpose of the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation was to provide a framework for assessing the net health benefits or risks of fish consumption that would assist governments to prepare advice for their own populations. This is the Executive Summary of the report and draws the general conclusion that benefits from fish consumption outweigh the risks for all populations.
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Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. Mozaffarian, D.; Rimm, E.B. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2006 Oct 18;296(15):1885-99.
For major health outcomes among adults, based on both the strength of the evidence and the potential magnitudes of effect, the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks. For women of childbearing age, benefits of modest fish intake, excepting a few selected species, also outweigh risks.
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The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors. Goodarz Danaei, Eric L. Ding, Dariush Mozaffarian, Ben Taylor, Jürgen Rehm, Christopher J. L Murray, Majid Ezzati. This paper estimates the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States using consistent and comparable methods.
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Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Lefevre M, Toner CD, Colombo J, Cunnane SC, Holden JM, Klurfeld DM, Morris MC and Whelan J. 2009. Journal of Nutrition 139(4):804S-819.
This is a result of a workshop held be the Technical Committee on Dietary Lipids of the International Life Sciences Institute North America to consider whether the body of evidence specific to the major chronic diseases in the United States—coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer, and cognitive decline—had evolved sufficiently to justify reconsideration of DRI for EPA+DHA.
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Seafood Choices: Balancing Benefits and Risks.  Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Committee on Nutrient Relationships in Seafood. Nesheim MC, Yaktine AL, editors. 2007. Seafood Choices: Balancing benefits and risks. National Academies Press: Washington, D.C.
At the request of government agencies the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies convened an expert committee to examine relationships between the benefits and risks of seafood in order to help consumers make informed choices.
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Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, Steer C, Emmett P, Rogers I, Williams C and Golding J. 2007. Lancet 369(9561):578-585.
A cohort of 11,875 pregnant women completed a food frequency questionnaire assessing seafood consumption at 32 weeks' gestation. Researchers recorded beneficial effects on child development with maternal seafood intakes of more than 340 g per week, suggesting that advice to limit seafood consumption could actually be detrimental.

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Meta-analysis of observational studies on fish intake and coronary heart disease. Whelton SP, He J, Whelton PK and Muntner P. 2004.  American Journal of Cardiology 93(9):1119-1123.
Some 19 observational studies in which there was a group that consumed fish on a regular basis and a comparison group that consumed little or no fish were reviewed. Findings suggest that fish consumption may be an important component of lifestyle modification for the prevention of coronary heart disease.
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Use of Quality-adjusted life year weights with dose-response models for public health decisions: A case study of the risks and benefits of fish consumption. Ponce RA, Bartell SM, Wong EY, LaFlamme D, Carrington C, Lee RC, Patrick DL, Faustman EM and Bolger M. 2000. Risk Analysis 20(4):529-542.
One of the first papers using QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Year) for developing a quantitative model for studying the risks and benefits of seafood consumption.
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A quantitaive risk-benefit analysis of changes in population fish consumption.  Cohen JT, Bellinger DC, Connor WE, Kris-Etherton PM, Lawrence RS, Savitz DA, Shaywitz BA, Teutsch SM and Gray GM. 2005. Amerericam Journal of Preventative Medicine 29(4):325-334.One in a series of studies that explores the risk-benefits of seafood consumption in various populations with end-points being coronary heart disease and, neurodevelopment. Authors use unique quantitative methods and use of QALYs to determine the overall impacts of seafood consumption.
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Mercury advisories and household health trade-offs. Shimshack JP and Ward MB. 2010. Journal of Health Economics 29(5):674-685.
The authors discuss how health advisories may have unintended consequences for reducing overall seafood consumption.
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Intakes of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid associated with reduced risk for death from coronary heart disease. Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM and Harris KA. 2008. Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 10:503-509.
Summary of studies looking at EPA and DHA intakes and epidemiological studies in the U.S.
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Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort. Oken E, Radesky JS, Wright RO, Bellinger DC, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Kleinman KP, Hu H and Gillman MW. 2008b. American Journal of Epidemiology 167(10):1171-1181.
One of the few studies looking at the balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development in the U.S.
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Fish, n-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Diseases in Women of Reproductive Age.  Marin Strøm, Thorhallur I. Halldorsson, Erik L. Mortensen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Sjurdur F. Olsen.  Hypertension. 2012;59:36-43, published online before print December 5 2011, doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.179382
The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk of cardiovascular disease in a large prospective cohort of young women.  Findings based on a large prospective cohort of relatively young and initially healthy women indicated that little or no intake of fish and LCn3FAs was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Click here to view the abstract  

Prenatal methylmercury exposure from ocean fish consumption in the Seychelles child development study. Myers GJ, Davidson PW, Cox C, Shamlaye CF, Palumbo D, Cernichiari E, Sloane-Reeves J, Wilding GE, Kost J, Huang LS and Clarkson TW. 2003. Lancet. 361(9370):1686-1692.
This long-term study in the Seychelles Islands shows no correlations of mercury in the diet with child neurological development.
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Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury.  Grandjean P, Weihe P, White RF, Debes F, Araki S, Yokoyama K, Murata K, Sorensen N, Dahl R and Jorgensen PJ. 1997.  Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 19(6):417-428.
This long-term study in the Faroe Islands shows a correlation of mercury in the diet and cognitive deficits.
To view this article click here 


Aquaculture Feeds

The Future of Aquafeeds: A Report of the NOAA/USDA Alternative Feeds Initiative. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS F/SPO-124. Michael B. Rust, Fredric T. Barrows, Ronald W. Hardy, Andrew Lazur, Kate Naughten, and Jeffrey Silverstein. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. 2012.
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Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Albert G.J. Tacon, Marc Metian. Aquaculture. 285 (2008) 146–158
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FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. FAO Fisheries Department.  No. 5, Suppl. 1. Rome, FAO. 2001. 47p.
The paper presents technical guidelines for good aquaculture feed manufacturing practice.
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Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources. Naylor, R.L., R.W. Hardy, D.P. Bureau, A. Chiu, M. Elliott, A.P. Farrell, I. Forster, D.M. Gatlin, R.J. Goldburg, K. Hua, and P.D. Nichols. 2009. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(36):15103-15110.
This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it.
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Aquaculture & the Environment

Marine Cage Culture and the Environment: Twenty-first Century Science Informing a Sustainable Industry. Morris, James; Price, Sharon. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 164. December 2013. pp 158.
This report  provides a comprehensive review of some predominant environmental risks that marine fish cage culture aquaculture, as it is currently conducted, poses in the marine environment and designs and practices now in use to address these environmental risks in the U.S. and elsewhere. The report includes a critical review of the large body of scientific work published since 2000 on the environmental impacts of  marine finfish aquaculture around the world.
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Blue Frontiers : Managing the environmental costs of aquaculture.  WorldFish Center and Conservation International.  (Hall, S.J., A. Delaporte, M. J. Phillips, M. Beveridge and M. O’Keefe) 2011. Penang, Malaysia.
A comprehensive analysis released by WorldFish Center and Conservation International (CI) has investigated the environmental impact of the world’s major aquaculture production systems and species, and offers a first-ever global assessment of trends and impacts of cultivated seafood. It concludes that the demand for aquaculture products will continue to grow over the next two decades as a key source of animal protein for growing urban populations and that the industry needs to meet this demand with improved efficiencies and reduced environmental impacts.
Click here to view the webpage and download the report 

An Ecosystem Design for Marine Aquaculture Site Selection and Operation. Kiefer, D.A., J.E. Rensel, F.J. O’Brien, D.W. Fredriksson and J. Irish. 2011. NOAA Marine Aquaculture Initiative Program. Final Report. Award Number: NA08OAR4170859. by System Science Applications (Irvine CA ) in association with United States Naval Academy and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
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Aquamodel: Software for Sustainable Development of Open Ocean Fish Farms. O’Brien, F., D. Kiefer and J.E. Jack Rensel. 2011. United States Department of Agriculture: Small Business Innovation Research Program. Final Report Prepared by System Science Applications, Inc. (Irvine, CA)
Near- and far field modeling using recent computer simulation advances and moi and striped bass physiological studies applied to multiple sites in Hawai’i and Southern California, respectively. This report demonstrates the importance of siting for sustainable aquaculture and the importance of knowing about far-field circulation if  multiple farms are used.
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Review of the Ecological Effects of Dredging in the Cultivation and Harvest of Molluscan Shellfish.  Renee Mercaldo-Allen and Ronald Goldberg. NMFS NE Technical Memoranda Series (TM 220)
This document reviews effects of dredging associated with the cultivation and harvest of molluscan shellfish, as reported in the literature.  Based on the review of the published literature, the physical, biological, and chemical effects of shellfish dredging within the inshore coastal zone are generally short-lived, with the rate of recovery varying among studies.
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Climate change adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture – compilation of initial examples. Shelton, C. 2014. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1088. Rome, FAO. 34 pp.
This circular contains a selection of current and recent climate change adaptation activities and measures in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. These examples provide an overview of the types of adaptation activities and programmes. Some of the highlighted activities are specifically targeted at addressing climate change impacts in fisheries or aquaculture and others address related areas (e.g. coastal management and capacity building activities) that also have benefits for fisheries or aquaculture. In addition to specific examples, the publication provides an overview of climate change impacts on global fisheries and aquaculture and potential adaptation and mitigation strategies. Descriptions for 26 current or recent activities and programmes highlight the diversity of potential adaptation actions at the local to regional scales. This circular is intended to provide a starting point for planners, policy-makers and practitioners who are involved in sectors related to fisheries and aquaculture around the globe.
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Shellfish Aquaculture

A Role for Shellfish Aquaculture in Coastal Nitrogen Management. Julie M. Rose; Suzanne B. Bricker; Mark A. Tedesco; Gary H. Wikfors. American Chemical Society Publications: Environmental Science and Technology.
While the use of shellfish for coastal nitrogen remediation has been proposed to address excess nutrients in coastal environments, formal incorporation into nitrogen management programs is lagging. Including shellfish aquaculture in existing nitrogen management programs makes sense from environmental, economic, and social perspectives, but challenges must be overcome for large-scale implementation to be possible.
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Offshore Mussel Culture Operations: Current Legal Framework and Regulatory Authorities.  National Sea Grant Law Center. April 2012.
The National Sea Grant Law Center conducted legal research and analysis to explore the potential permitting process for a hypothetical mussel culture operation in federal waters off the coast of New England.  This white paper respresents the the National Sea Grant Law Center's interpretation of the relevant laws and regulations.

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Ecosystem Concepts for Sustainable Bivalve Mariculture. National Research Council. Washington, DC. The National Academies Press. 2010.
This book takes an in-depth look at the environmental, social, and economic issues to present recommendations for sustainable bivalve mariculture. Ecosystem Concepts for Sustainable Bivalve Mariculture finds that while performance standards can be applied for some broad ecosystem indicators, BMPs may be more appropriate for addressing parameters that change from site to site, such as the species being cultured, different culture methods, and various environmental conditions. 

How Nutrient Trading Could Help Restore the Chesapeake Bay.  Cy Jones, Evan Branosky, Mindy Selman, Michelle Perez.  World Resources Institute Working Paper.
This WRI Working Paper discusses the potential for nutrient trading to reduce nutrient pollution in the Chesapeake Bay, in which shellfish aquaculture could play a significant role.
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Review of the Ecological Effects of Dredging in the Cultivation and Harvest of Molluscan Shellfish.  NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-220.  By Renee Mercaldo-Allen and Ronald Goldberg.  National Marine Fisheries Service, 212 Rogers Avenue, Milford CT 06460.
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Connecticut Shellfisheries Mapping Atlas.  An interactive online map viewer designed to assist Connecticut’s shellfish industry and resource managers with planning for and management of shellfisheries activity including commercial and recreational harvesting and aquaculture.
Click here to go to the Connecticut Sea Grant's Shellfisheries Mapping Atlas

List of references on shellfish interactions with the environment.
Click here to download the pdf (2.6 mb)

Summary of the 2008 NOAA National Symposium on Shellfish & the Environment.  NOAA. 2008.
On June 9-10, 2008, the NOAA Aquaculture and Habitat Conservation offices hosted the a 'National Symposium on Shellfish and the Environment' in Warwick, RI. Information generated by the symposium is used to facilitate public policy and resource management decisions for shellfish culture in the United States.

Click here to download the pdf (100 kb)


 Stock Enhancement

website: Science Consortium on Ocean Replenishment (SCORE). The Science Consortium for Ocean Replenishment was initiated in 2000 by scientists and fishery agencies managers and funded by Congress in 2001. This alliance was formed to focus stock enhancement research in the US on advancing the science needed to develop and manage marine stock enhancement to achieve effective and economical results.  

website: Hatchery Reform. This is the website for the Pacific Northwest Hatchery Reform Project. The US Congress established the project in 2000 because it recognized that while hatcheries play a legitimate role in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmon and steelhead, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform.  

Publications on Stock-Enhancement by Science Consortium for Ocean Replenishment (SCORE) Scientists.
This webpage provides an updated bibliography of publications that address a wide variety of issues in stock enhancement including responsible approaches, habitat effects, survival, genetics, and technology development.
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Responsible approach to marine stock enhancement: An update. Lorenzen, K., K. M. Leber and H. L. Blankenship. 2010 Reviews in Fisheries Science 18(2):189-210.
Click here to read online  

Marine fisheries enhancement: Coming of age in the new millennium. Leber, K.M.  2013. pp. 1139-1157 In: Paul Christou et al. (eds). Sustainable Food Production. Springer Science, New York. (Originally published In: Robert A. Meyers (ed 2012. Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. Springer Science. 20 pages.)
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Research and development of marine stock enhancement in the US.  Science Consortium for Ocean Replenishment. Leber, K.M., B.A. Berejikian and J.S.F. Lee. 2012.
This paper discusses the background, progress, and future needs of marine stock enhancement in the United States.
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(84 kb) 

NOAA Fisheries: Abolone Restoration and Management in Southern California
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Sustainable U.S. Marine Aquaculture Expansion in the 21st Century. John S. Corbin, Guest Editor. Marine Technology Society Journal. Volume 44, Number 3, May/June 2010.
This volume of the Marine Technology Society Journal discusses aquaculture as a tool for stock enhancement of important commercial and recreational species, saving threatened and endangered species, and marine habitat restoration.
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 Finfish Aquaculture

Advances in Sustainable Marine Aquaculture Technology: Candidiate Species Research. NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. James Morris & Carol Price. Beaufort, NC Marine Lab. 2012.
Fact sheet that discusses the potential for sustainable aquaculture of red porgy and vermilion snapper.
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Marine Cage Culture & the Environment: Building NOAA's Information Toolbox. NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. James Morris & Carol Price. Beaufort, NC Marine Lab. 2012.
Fact sheet to inform on-going analysis of global research on environmental effects of marine cage culture.
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Environmental Models For Marine Aquaculture Site Selection and Spatial Planning. NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. James Morris, Key Riley, & Carol Price. Beaufort, NC Marine Lab. 2012.
Fact sheet that discusses NOAA's effort to apply modeling and marine spatial planning in an integrated, ecosystem-based approach to sustainable development of marine aquaculture in U.S. coastal waters.

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 Offshore Aquaculture

A global assessment of offshore mariculture potential from a spatial perspective. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 549. James McDaid Kapetsky, José Aguilar-Manjarrez, Jeff Jenness. Rome, FAO. 181 pp. 2013.
This publication finds that mariculture, in particular offshore, offers significant opportunities for sustainable food production and development of many coastal communities, especially in regions where the availability of land, near shore space and freshwater are limited. This publication provides, for the first time, measures of the status and potential for offshore mariculture development from a spatial perspective that are comprehensive of all maritime nations and comparable among them. It also identifies nations that are not yet practicing mariculture that have a high offshore potential.
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Expanding mariculture farther offshore. Technical, environmental, spatial and governance challenges. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings No. 24. Alessandro Lovatelli, José Aguilar-Manjarrez, Doris Soto. FAO Technical Workshop. 22–25. March 2010. Orbetello, Italy.
The objective of the workshop from which these proceedings come was to discuss the growing need to transfer land-based and coastal aquaculture production systems farther off the coast and provide recommendations for action to FAO, governments and the private sector. The workshop report highlights the major opportunities and challenges for a sustainable mariculture industry to grow and further expand off the coast. This publication is organized in two parts. The proceedings include the workshop report, and an accompanying CD–ROM containing four reviews covering technical, environmental, economic and marketing, policy and governance issues, and two case studies on highfin amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) offshore farming in Hawaii (the United States of America) and one on salmon farming in Chile.
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