1999 Fine for Sugarloaf Dolphin Release
Former "Flipper" dolphin trainer Richard O'Barry, and his associate Lloyd A. Good III, have been found guilty of violating the Marine Mammal Protection Act for releasing two captive dolphins off the Florida coast in May 1999 that were not prepared to survive in the wild and sustained life-threatening injuries. O'Barry, Good, and their respective corporate entities were ordered to pay civil penalties [pdf] totaling $59,500.
Judge Peter A. Fitzpatrick, a U.S. Administrative Law Judge, fined civil penalties of $40,000 for illegally "taking" by harassment and illegally transporting each of the dolphins -- the maximum penalty provided by law:
- Richard O'Barry of Coconut Grove, FL
- Lloyd Good III of Sugarloaf Key, FL
- Sugarloaf Dolphin Sanctuary Inc. of Sugarloaf Key FL*
- Dolphin Project Inc. of South Miami, FL
*The Sugarloaf Dolphin Sanctuary was fined an additional $19,500 for failing to notify NOAA Fisheries prior to the transport of the dolphins.
1996 Release into the Wild
O'Barry and Good released the two dolphins, named "Luther" and "Buck," approximately six miles off the coast of Key West, FL, on May 23, 1996.
The day after the dolphins were released, Luther appeared in a congested Key West marina with deep lacerations, approaching people, and begging for food.
Buck, found two weeks after his release over 40 miles away, had similar deep lacerations and was emaciated.
NOAA Fisheries determined that the dolphins were in need of medical attention. With the help of members of the southeast marine mammal stranding network, the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and Florida Marine Patrol (now Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission), NOAA Fisheries successfully rescued the animals and provided veterinary care.
The two dolphins had been collected from the wild off the coast of Mississippi during the 1980s and were in captivity for almost 10 years. They were initially in the U.S. Navy's marine mammal program, but were transferred to the Sugarloaf Dolphin Sanctuary in 1994 as part of a project that intended to return them to the wild.
Although the Sugarloaf Dolphin Sanctuary obtained the necessary authorizations to have the dolphins on public display, a scientific research permit was never obtained or requested prior to the release.
Releasing captive marine mammals to the wild
Releasing captive marine mammals to the wild can be hazardous to both the released animal and wild marine mammal populations if conducted improperly and without appropriate safeguards. Issues of concern include:
- the ability of released animals to adequately forage and defend themselves from predators
- any behavioral patterns developed in captivity that could affect the social behavior of wild animals, as well as the social integration of the released animals
- disease transmission and/or unwanted genetic exchange between released animals and wild stocks
Any marine mammal release should be conducted with a MMPA scientific research permit to protect the health and welfare of marine mammals. The MMPA scientific research permit is required to ensure that humane protocols be in place that maximize the release's chance of success and provide for long-term followup monitoring and emergency contingency plans in case it is necessary to rescue a released animal.
- Dolphin Removed from Unsafe Conditions at Sugarloaf: June 7, 1996 [pdf]
- Dolphins Return to Naval Veterinary Care in San Diego: June 13, 1996 [pdf]
- Rescue of Two Bottlenose Dolphins Released to the Wild without Adequate Preparation: Poster Presentation from 1999 Marine Mammal Biennial Conference [pdf]
- Activists Fined $59,500 in Sugarloaf Dolphin Release: June 10, 1999 [pdf]
- Court Hearing: February 8, 1999 [pdf]
Updated: December 8, 2011