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High Seas Antarctic Living Marine Resources Fisheries

Current Classification on the 2017 LOF

Gear Type Pelagic trawl; Demersal longline
Category Category II - trawl, longline
Estimated Number of Participants Trawl - 0; Longline - 0
Target Species krill, toothfish, icefish
Applicable Take Reduction Plans N/A
Observer Coverage CCAMLR has identified two types of scientifically trained observers to collect information required in CCAMLR managed fisheries, including information on incidental entanglement and mortality of marine mammals and seabirds. The first type of observer is a ‘‘national observer,” such as a U.S. observer placed on a U.S. vessel by the U.S. Government. The second type of observer is an ‘‘international observer,’’ or an observer operating in accordance with bilateral arrangements between the Nation whose vessel is fishing and the nation providing the observer. CCAMLR Conservation measures require all fishing vessels in the CCAMLR area (except vessels fishing for krill) to carry at least one international observer and, where possible, an additional observer. The United States requires all of its vessels fishing in the CCAMLR area, for any target species and with any gear, to carry an observer. In certain exploratory toothfish fisheries, the vessel must carry two observers, with at least one being an international observer.
Marine Mammal Species/Stocks Killed or Injured Trawl: Antarctic fur seals;
Longline: None documented

^ Number of participants estimates are based on state and federal fisheries permit data.  The estimated number of participants is expressed in terms of the number of active participants in the fishery, when possible.  If this information is not available, the estimated number of vessels or persons licensed for a particular fishery is provided.  If no recent information is available on the number of participants, then the number from the most recent LOF is used.  NMFS acknowledges that, in some cases, these estimations may be inflating actual effort.  

*Observer coverage levels include the latest information reported in the most current final Stock Assessment Report (SAR)

1Indicates the stock or species is driving the classification of the fishery 

Note: Current classification based on final LOF, no proposed changes are reflected in this table.

Basis for Current Classification

While a formal observer program exists for fisheries in the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) region, information on marine mammal stock abundance in the area is scarce and observer reports of fishery interactions are not yet specific enough to determine the level of marine mammal serious injury and mortality. Prior to 2004, Antarctic fur seals were observed injured/killed by U.S. vessels in the CCAMLR trawl fishery for krill. The takes were drastically reduced in the 2004/2005 fishing season due to a requirement to include a seal excluder device on trawls. Due to the large population size of this species, the currently low rate of serious injury and mortality is likely not a conservation risk. There are no documented interactions between other marine mammal species and U.S. vessels using other gear types in the CCAMLR region.


The Commission for CCAMLR conserves and manages Antarctic marine living resources (AMLR) in waters surrounding Antarctica. The Convention applies to AMLR of the area south of the 60° South latitude and to the AMLR of the area between that latitude and the Antarctic Convergence which form part of the Antarctic marine ecosystem, covering 32.9 million square kilometers.

Gear Description

There are multiple gear types used to target multiple species in the CCAMLR area. Gear types include pelagic trawl and demersal longline.


A vessel permit issued pursuant to AMLR regulations and a High Seas Fishing Compliance Act (HSFCA) permit are both required to fish in CCAMLR waters. CCAMLR Conservation Measures require several measures for fisheries in the CCAMLR area. CCAMLR measures include requirements for reporting; operating a Vessel Monitoring System; longline gear modifications and other requirements to reduce seabird interactions; and mesh sizes restrictions for trawl gear. CCAMLR measures also include seal bycatch mitigation measures, such as a seal excluder device. The United States implements the CCAMLR Conservation Measures through the AMLR regulation and through the vessel permit.


Historical Information

Original Category (Year added to the LOF) II (2009)
Original Number of Participants 0
Basis for Original Classification While a formal observer program existed for fisheries in the CCAMLR region, information on marine mammal stock abundance in the area was scarce and observer reports of fishery interactions were specific enough to determine the level of marine mammal serious injury and mortality. Therefore, all gear types were listed as Category II, the appropriate classification for new fisheries on the LOF for which there is little information on which to base a classification.
Past Names N/A
Species/stocks historically documented as killed or injured (but not currently on the list) N/A


Timeline of Changes

  • CCAMLR are added to the List of Fisheries.


Updated March 10, 2017