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2010 List of Fisheries (LOF)

« List of Fisheries Overview

The List of Fisheries (LOF) classifies U.S. commercial fisheries into Categories according to the level of interactions that result in incidental mortality or serious injury of marine mammals organized in four tables:

  1. Pacific Ocean
    Category:
    1. frequent interactions
    2. occasional interactions
    3. remote likelihood of/no known interactions
  2. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean
    Category:
    1. frequent interactions
    2. occasional interactions
    3. remote likelihood of/no known interactions
  3. High Seas
    Category:
    1. frequent interactions
    2. occasional interactions
    3. remote likelihood of/no known interactions
  4. Fisheries Affected by Take Reduction Teams and Plans

Click on the fishery links in the table below for descriptions (current and historical) of each Category I and II fishery.


Table 1 - Commercial Fisheries in the Pacific Ocean

Fishery Description Estimated # of vessels/ persons Marine mammal species/ stocks incidentally killed/ injured
CATEGORY I
GILLNET FISHERIES:
CA/OR thresher shark/swordfish drift gillnet (≥14 in mesh)*
85
  • California sea lion, U.S.
  • Long-beaked common dolphin, CA
  • Northern elephant seal, CA breeding
  • Northern right-whale dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Pacific white-sided dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Risso's dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Short-finned pilot whale, CA/OR/WA1
LONGLINE/SET LINE FISHERIES:
HI deep-set (tuna target) longline/set line*
129
  • Blainville's beaked whale, HI
  • Bottlenose dolphin, HI
  • False killer whale, HI pelagic1
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific
  • Pantropical spotted dolphin, stock unknown
  • Risso's dolphin, HI
  • Short-finned pilot whale, HI
  • Striped dolphin, HI
CATEGORY II
GILLNET FISHERIES:
CA halibut/white seabass and other species set gillnet (>3.5 in mesh)
58
  • California sea lion, U.S.1
  • Harbor seal, CA1
  • Long-beaked common dolphin, CA
  • Northern elephant seal, CA breeding
  • Sea otter, CA
  • Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA
CA yellowtail, barracuda, and white seabass drift gillnet fishery (mesh size ≥3.5 in and <14 in)
24
  • California sea lion, U.S.
  • Long-beaked common dolphin, CA1
  • Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA
AK Bristol Bay salmon drift gillnet2
1,862
  • Beluga whale, Bristol Bay
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
  • Harbor seal, Bering Sea
  • Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific
  • Pacific white-sided dolphin, North Pacific
  • Spotted seal, AK
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Bristol Bay salmon set gillnet2
983
  • Beluga whale, Bristol Bay
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
  • Harbor seal, Bering Sea
  • Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific
  • Spotted seal, AK
AK Cook Inlet salmon set gillnet
738
  • Beluga whale, Cook Inlet
  • Dall's porpoise, AK
  • Harbor porpoise, GOA
  • Harbor seal, GOA
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific1
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Cook Inlet salmon drift gillnet
571
  • Beluga whale, Cook Inlet
  • Dall's porpoise, AK
  • Harbor porpoise, GOA1
  • Harbor seal, GOA
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Kodiak salmon set gillnet
188
  • Harbor porpoise, GOA1
  • Harbor seal, GOA
  • Sea otter, Southwest AK
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Peninsula/Aleutian Islands salmon drift gillnet2
162
  • Dall's porpoise, AK
  • Harbor porpoise, GOA
  • Harbor seal, GOA
  • Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific
AK Peninsula/Aleutian Islands salmon set gillnet2
115
  • Harbor porpoise, Bering Sea
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Prince William Sound salmon drift gillnet
537
  • Dall's porpoise, AK
  • Harbor porpoise, GOA1
  • Harbor seal, GOA
  • Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific
  • Pacific white-sided dolphin, North Pacific
  • Sea Otter, South Central AK
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.1
AK Southeast salmon drift gillnet
476
  • Dall's porpoise, AK
  • Harbor porpoise, Southeast AK
  • Harbor seal, Southeast AK
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific1
  • Pacific white-sided dolphin, North Pacific
  • Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.
AK Yakutat salmon set gillnet2
166
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
  • Harbor seal, Southeast AK
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific (Southeast AK)
WA Puget Sound Region salmon drift gillnet (includes all inland waters south of US-Canada border and eastward of the Bonilla-Tatoosh line-Treaty Indian fishing is excluded)
210
  • Dall's porpoise, CA/OR/WA
  • Harbor porpoise, inland WA1
  • Harbor seal, WA inland
PURSE SEINE FISHERIES:
AK Cook Inlet salmon purse seine
82
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific1
AK Kodiak salmon purse seine
370
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific1
CA anchovy, mackerel, sardine purse seine
63
  • Bottlenose dolphin, CA/OR/WA offshore1
  • California sea lion, U.S.
  • Harbor seal, CA
CA squid purse seine
64
  • Long-beaked common dolphin, CA1
  • Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA
CA tuna purse seine2 *
10
None documented
TRAWL FISHERIES:
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands flatfish trawl
34
  • Bearded seal, AK
  • Harbor porpoise, Bering Sea
  • Harbor seal, Bering Sea
  • Killer whale, AK resident1
  • Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific
  • Spotted seal, AK
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.1
  • Walrus, AK
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands pollock trawl
95
  • Dall's porpoise, AK
  • Harbor seal, AK
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific
  • Humpback whale, Western North Pacific
  • Killer whale, Eastern North Pacific, GOA, Aleutian Islands, and Bering Sea transient1
  • Minke whale, AK
  • Ribbon seal, AK
  • Spotted seal, AK
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.1
LONGLINE/SET LINE FISHERIES:
HI shallow-set (swordfish target) longline/ set line*
28
  • Bottlenose dolphin, stock unknown
  • Bryde's whale, stock unknown
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific1
  • Risso's dolphin, stock unknown
  • Sperm whale, stock unknown
American Samoa longline2
60
  • False killer whale, stock unknown
HI shortline2
11
None documented
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Pacific cod longline
54
  • Killer whale, AK resident1
  • Ribbon seal, AK
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
POT, RING NET, AND TRAP FISHERIES:
AK Bering Sea sablefish pot
6
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific1
  • Humpback whale, Western North Pacific1
CA spot prawn pot
29
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
  • Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA1
CA Dungeness crab pot2
625
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
  • Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA
OR Dungeness crab pot
433
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
  • Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA1
WA/OR/CA sablefish pot
155
  • Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA1
CATEGORY III
GILLNET FISHERIES:
AK Kuskokwim, Yukon, Norton Sound, Kotzebue salmon gillnet
824
  • Harbor porpoise, Bering Sea
AK miscellaneous finfish set gillnet
3
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Prince William Sound salmon set gillnet
30
  • Harbor seal, GOA
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK roe herring and food/bait herring gillnet
986
None documented
CA set gillnet (mesh size <3.5 in)
304
None documented
HI inshore gillnet
5
  • Bottlenose dolphin, HI
  • Spinner dolphin, HI
WA Grays Harbor salmon drift gillnet (excluding treaty Tribal fishing)
24
  • Harbor seal, OR/WA coast
WA/OR herring, smelt, shad, sturgeon, bottom fish, mullet, perch, rockfish gillnet
913
None documented
WA/OR lower Columbia River (includes tributaries) drift gillnet
110
  • California sea lion, U.S.
  • Harbor seal, OR/WA coast
WA Willapa Bay drift gillnet
82
  • Harbor seal, OR/WA coast
  • Northern elephant seal, CA breeding
PURSE SEINE, BEACH SEINE, ROUND HAUL AND THROW NET FISHERIES:
AK Southeast salmon purse seine
415
None documented in recent years
AK Metlakatla salmon purse seine
10
None documented
AK miscellaneous finfish beach seine
1
None documented
AK miscellaneous finfish purse seine
0
None documented
AK octopus/squid purse seine
0
None documented
AK roe herring and food/bait herring beach seine
4
None documented
AK roe herring and food/bait herring purse seine
361
None documented
AK salmon beach seine
31
None documented
AK salmon purse seine (excluding salmon purse seine fisheries listed as Category II)
936
  • Harbor seal, GOA
WA/OR sardine purse seine
42
None documented
HI Kona crab loop net
42
None documented
HI opelu/akule net
12
None documented
HI inshore purse seine
23
None documented
HI throw net, cast net
14
None documented
WA (all species) beach seine or drag seine
235
None documented
WA/OR herring, smelt, squid purse seine or lampara
130
None documented
WA salmon purse seine
440
None documented
WA salmon reef net
53
None documented
DIP NET FISHERIES:
CA squid dip net
115
None documented
WA/OR smelt, herring dip net
119
None documented
MARINE AQUACULTURE FISHERIES:
CA marine shellfish aquaculture
unknown
None documented
CA salmon enhancement rearing pen
>1
None documented
CA white seabass enhancement net pens
13
  • California sea lion, U.S.
HI offshore pen culture
2
None documented
OR salmon ranch
1
None documented
WA/OR salmon net pens
14
  • California sea lion, U.S.
  • Harbor seal, WA inland waters
TROLL FISHERIES:
AK North Pacific halibut, AK bottom fish, WA/OR/CA albacore, groundfish, bottom fish, CA halibut non-salmonid troll fisheries*
1,302 (102 AK)
None documented
AK salmon troll
2,045
  • Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
American Samoa tuna troll
<50
None documented
CA/OR/WA salmon troll
4,300
None documented
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands tuna troll
88
None documented
Guam tuna troll
401
None documented
HI trolling, rod and reel
1,321
None documented
LONGLINE/SET LINE FISHERIES:
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Greenland turbot longline
29
  • Killer whale, AK resident
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands rockfish longline
0
None documented
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands sablefish longline
28
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska halibut longline
1,302
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska Pacific cod longline
440
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska rockfish longline
0
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska sablefish longline
291
  • Sperm whale, North Pacific
  • Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.
AK halibut longline/set line (State and Federal waters)
2,521
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK octopus/squid longline
2
None documented
AK State-managed waters longline/setline (including sablefish, rockfish, lingcod, and miscellaneous finfish)
1,448
None documented
WA/OR/CA groundfish, bottomfish longline/set line
367
None documented
WA/OR North Pacific halibut longline/set line
350
None documented
CA pelagic longline
6
  • Risso's dolphin, CA/OR/WA
TRAWL FISHERIES:
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Atka mackerel trawl
9
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Pacific cod trawl
93
  • Harbor seal, Bering Sea
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands rockfish trawl
10
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska flatfish trawl
41
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska Pacific cod trawl
62
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Gulf of Alaska pollock trawl
62
  • Fin whale, Northeast Pacific
  • Northern elephant seal, North Pacific
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Gulf of Alaska rockfish trawl
34
None documented
AK food/bait herring trawl
4
None documented
AK miscellaneous finfish otter or beam trawl
317
None documented
AK shrimp otter trawl and beam trawl (statewide and Cook Inlet)
32
None documented
AK State-managed waters of Cook Inlet, Kachemak Bay, Prince William Sound, Southeast AK groundfish trawl
2
None documented
CA halibut bottom trawl
53
None documented
WA/OR/CA groundfish trawl
160-180
  • California sea lion, U.S.
  • Dall's porpoise, CA/OR/WA
  • Harbor seal, OR/WA coast
  • Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific
  • Pacific white-sided dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.
WA/OR/CA shrimp trawl
300
None documented
POT, RING NET, AND TRAP FISHERIES:
AK statewide miscellaneous finfish pot
293
None documented
AK Aleutian Islands sablefish pot
8
None documented
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Pacific cod pot
68
None documented
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands crab pot
297
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska crab pot
300
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska Pacific cod pot
154
  • Harbor seal, GOA
AK Southeast Alaska crab pot
433
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific (Southeast AK)
AK Southeast Alaska shrimp pot
283
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific (Southeast AK)
AK shrimp pot, except Southeast
15
None documented
AK octopus/squid pot
27
None documented
AK snail pot
1
None documented
CA coonstripe shrimp, rock crab, tanner crab pot or trap
305
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
  • Harbor seal, CA
CA spiny lobster
225
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
OR/CA hagfish pot or trap
54
None documented
WA Dungeness crab pot
288
  • Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
WA/OR shrimp pot/trap
254
None documented
HI crab trap
22
None documented
HI fish trap
19
None documented
HI lobster trap
0
  • Hawaiian monk seal
HI shrimp trap
5
None documented
HANDLINE AND JIG FISHERIES:
AK miscellaneous finfish handline/hand troll and mechanical jig
445
None documented
AK North Pacific halibut handline/hand troll and mechanical jig
228
None documented
AK octopus/squid handline
0
None documented
American Samoa bottomfish
<50
None documented
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands bottomfish
<50
None documented
Guam bottomfish
200
None documented
HI aku boat, pole, and line
4
None documented
HI Main Hawaiian Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands deep sea bottomfish
300
  • Hawaiian monk seal
HI inshore handline
307
None documented
HI tuna handline
298
None documented
WA groundfish, bottomfish jig
679
None documented
Western Pacific squid jig
6
None documented
HARPOON FISHERIES:
CA swordfish harpoon
30
None documented
POUND NET/WEIR FISHERIES:
AK herring spawn on kelp pound net
415
None documented
AK Southeast herring roe/food/bait pound net
6
None documented
WA herring brush weir
1
None documented
BAIT PENS:
WA/OR/CA bait pens
13
  • California sea lion, U.S.
DREDGE FISHERIES:
Coastwide scallop dredge
108 (12 AK)
None documented
DIVE, HAND/MECHANICAL COLLECTION FISHERIES:
AK abalone
0
None documented
AK clam
156
None documented
WA herring spawn on kelp
4
None documented
AK dungeness crab
2
None documented
AK herring spawn on kelp
266
None documented
AK urchin and other fish/shellfish
570
None documented
CA abalone
0
None documented
CA sea urchin
583
None documented
HI black coral diving
1
None documented
HI fish pond
N/A
None documented
HI handpick
37
None documented
HI lobster diving
19
None documented
HI squiding, spear
91
None documented
WA/CA kelp
4
None documented
WA/OR sea urchin, other clam, octopus, oyster, sea cucumber, scallop, ghost shrimp hand, dive, or mechanical collection
637
None documented
WA shellfish aquaculture
684
None documented
COMMERCIAL PASSENGER FISHING VESSEL (CHARTER BOAT) FISHERIES:
AK/WA/OR/CA commercial passenger fishing vessel
>7,000 (2,702 AK)
  • Killer whale, stock unknown
  • Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.
  • Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
HI charter vessel
114
None documented
LIVE FINFISH/SHELLFISH FISHERIES:
CA nearshore finfish live trap/hook-and-line
93
None documented

List of Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Table 1:

  • AK - Alaska
  • CA - California
  • GOA - Gulf of Alaska
  • HI - Hawaii
  • OR - Oregon
  • WA - Washington
  • 1 Fishery classified based on serious injuries and mortalities of this stock, which are greater than 50 percent (Category I) or greater than 1 percent and less than 50 percent (Category II) of the stock's PBR;
  • 2 Fishery classified by analogy;
  • * Fishery has an associated high seas component listed in Table 3.

Table 2 - Commercial Fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean

Fishery Description Estimated # of vessels/ persons Marine mammal species/ stocks incidentally killed/ injured
CATEGORY I
GILLNET FISHERIES:
Mid-Atlantic gillnet
>670
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal1
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore
  • Common dolphin, WNA
  • Gray seal, WNA
  • Harbor porpoise, GME/BF
  • Harbor seal, WNA
  • Harp seal, WNA
  • Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine
  • Long-finned pilot whale, WNA
  • Minke whale, Canadian east coast
  • Short-finned pilot whale, WNA
  • White-sided dolphin, WNA
Northeast sink gillnet
341
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore
  • Common dolphin, WNA
  • Fin whale, WNA
  • Gray seal, WNA
  • Harbor porpoise, GME/BF1
  • Harbor seal, WNA
  • Harp seal, WNA
  • Hooded seal, WNA
  • Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine
  • Minke whale, Canadian east coast
  • North Atlantic right whale, WNA
  • Risso's dolphin, WNA
  • White-sided dolphin, WNA
LONGLINE FISHERIES:
Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico large pelagics longline*
94
  • Atlantic spotted dolphin, Northern GMX
  • Atlantic spotted dolphin, WNA
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX oceanic
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX continental shelf
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore
  • Common dolphin, WNA
  • Cuvier's beaked whale, WNA
  • Long-finned pilot whale, WNA1
  • Mesoplodon beaked whale, WNA
  • Northern Bottlenose whale, WNA
  • Pantropical spotted dolphin, Northern GMX
  • Pantropical spotted dolphin, WNA
  • Risso's dolphin, Northern GMX
  • Risso's dolphin, WNA
  • Short-finned pilot whale, Northern GMX
  • Short-finned pilot whale, WNA1
TRAP/POT FISHERIES:
Northeast/Mid-Atlantic American lobster trap/pot
13,000
  • Harbor seal, WNA
  • Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine
  • Minke whale, Canadian east coast
  • North Atlantic right whale, WNA1
CATEGORY II
GILLNET FISHERIES:
Chesapeake Bay inshore gillnet2
45
None documented in recent years
Gulf of Mexico gillnet2
724
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, and estuarine
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal
NC inshore gillnet
94
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal1
Northeast anchored float gillnet2
133
  • Harbor seal, WNA
  • Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine
  • White-sided dolphin, WNA
Northeast drift gillnet2
unknown
None documented
Southeast Atlantic gillnet2
779
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic shark gillnet
30
  • Atlantic spotted dolphin, WNA
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal1
  • North Atlantic right whale, WNA
TRAWL FISHERIES:
Mid-Atlantic mid-water trawl (including pair trawl)
620
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore
  • Common dolphin, WNA
  • Long-finned pilot whale, WNA
  • Risso's dolphin, WNA
  • Short-finned pilot whale, WNA
  • White-sided dolphin, WNA1
Mid-Atlantic bottom trawl
>1,000
  • Common dolphin, WNA1
  • Long-finned pilot whale, WNA1
  • Short-finned pilot whale, WNA1
  • White-sided dolphin, WNA
Mid-Atlantic flynet2
21
None documented
Northeast mid-water trawl (including pair trawl)
17
  • Harbor seal, WNA
  • Long-finned pilot whale, WNA1
  • Short-finned pilot whale, WNA1
  • White-sided dolphin, WNA
Northeast bottom trawl
1,052
  • Common dolphin, WNA
  • Harbor porpoise, GME/BF
  • Harbor seal, WNA
  • Harp seal, WNA
  • Long-finned pilot whale, WNA
  • Short-finned pilot whale, WNA
  • White-sided dolphin, WNA1
TRAP/POT FISHERIES:
Atlantic blue crab trap/pot
>16,000
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal1
  • West Indian manatee, FL1
Atlantic mixed species trap/pot2
unknown
  • Fin whale, WNA
  • Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine
PURSE SEINE FISHERIES:
Gulf of Mexico menhaden purse seine
40-42
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, estuarine
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal1
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal1
Mid-Atlantic menhaden purse seine2
22
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal
HAUL/BEACH SEINE FISHERIES:
Mid-Atlantic haul/beach seine
25
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal1
NC long haul seine
33
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal1
STOP NET FISHERIES:
NC roe mullet stop net
13
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal1
POUND NET FISHERIES:
VA pound net
41
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal1
CATEGORY III
GILLNET FISHERIES:
Caribbean gillnet
>991
  • Dwarf sperm whale, WNA
  • West Indian manatee, Antillean
DE River inshore gillnet
60
None documented in recent years
Long Island Sound inshore gillnet
20
None documented in recent years
RI, southern MA (to Monomoy Island), and NY Bight (Raritan and Lower NY Bays) inshore gillnet
32
None documented in recent years
Southeast Atlantic inshore gillnet
unknown
None documented
TRAWL FISHERIES:
Atlantic shellfish bottom trawl
972
None documented
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl
>18,000
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, estuarine
  • West Indian manatee, FL
Gulf of Mexico butterfish trawl
2
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX oceanic
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX continental shelf
Gulf of Mexico mixed species trawl
20
None documented
GA cannonball jellyfish trawl
1
None documented
MARINE AQUACULTURE FISHERIES:
Finfish aquaculture
48
  • Harbor seal, WNA
Shellfish aquaculture
unknown
None documented
PURSE SEINE FISHERIES:
Gulf of Maine Atlantic herring purse seine
30
  • Harbor seal, WNA
  • Gray seal, WNA
Gulf of Maine menhaden purse seine
50
None documented
FL West Coast sardine purse seine
10
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
U.S. Atlantic tuna purse seine*
5
  • Long-finned pilot whale, WNA
  • Short-finned pilot whale, WNA
LONGLINE/HOOK-AND-LINE FISHERIES:
Northeast/Mid-Atlantic bottom longline/hook-and-line
46
None documented in recent years
Gulf of Maine , U.S. Mid-Atlantic tuna, shark swordfish hook-and-line/harpoon
26,223
  • Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean snapper-grouper and other reef fish bottom longline/hook-and-line
>5,000
None documented
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico shark bottom longline/hook-and-line
<125
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX continental shelf
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean pelagic hook-and-line/harpoon
1,446
None documented
U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico trotline
unknown
None documented
TRAP/POT FISHERIES
Caribbean mixed species trap/pot
>501
None documented
Caribbean spiny lobster trap/pot
>197
None documented
FL spiny lobster trap/pot
2,145
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal
Gulf of Mexico blue crab trap/pot
4,113
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, GMX Bay, Sound, & Estuarine
  • West Indian manatee, FL
Gulf of Mexico mixed species trap/pot
unknown
None documented
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico golden crab trap/pot
10
None documented
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico stone crab trap/pot
4,453
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal
U.S. Mid-Atlantic eel trap/pot
>700
None documented
STOP SEINE/WEIR/POUND NET FISHERIES:
Gulf of Maine herring and Atlantic mackerel stop seine/weir
50
  • Gray seal, Northwest North Atlantic
  • Harbor porpoise, GME/BF
  • Harbor seal, WNA
  • Minke whale, Canadian East Coast
  • White-sided dolphin, WNA
U.S. Mid-Atlantic crab stop seine/weir
2,600
None documented
U.S. Mid-Atlantic mixed species stop seine/weir/pound net (except the NC roe mullet stop net)
751
None documented
DREDGE FISHERIES:
Gulf of Maine mussel
>50
None documented
Gulf of Maine , U.S. Mid-Atlantic sea scallop dredge
233
None documented
U.S. Mid-Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico oyster
7,000
None documented
U.S. Mid-Atlantic offshore surf clam and quahog dredge
100
None documented
HAUL/BEACH SEINE FISHERIES:
Caribbean haul/beach seine
15
  • West Indian manatee, Antillean
Gulf of Mexico haul/beach seine
unknown
None documented
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic haul/beach seine
25
None documented
DIVE, HAND/MECHANICAL COLLECTION FISHERIES:
Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean shellfish dive, hand/mechanical collection
20,000
None documented
Gulf of Maine urchin dive, hand/mechanical collection
>50
None documented
Gulf of Mexico, Southeast Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, and Caribbean cast net
unknown
None documented
COMMERCIAL PASSENGER FISHING VESSEL (CHARTER BOAT) FISHERIES:
Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean commercial passenger fishing vessel
4,000
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA coastal

List of Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Table 2:

  • DE - Delaware
  • FL - Florida
  • GA - Georgia
  • GME/BF - Gulf of Maine/Bay of Fundy
  • GMX - Gulf of Mexico
  • MA - Massachusetts
  • NC - North Carolina
  • VA - Virginia
  • WNA - Western North Atlantic
  • 1 Fishery classified based on serious injuries and mortalities of this stock, which are greater than 50 percent (Category I) or greater than 1 percent and less than 50 percent (Category II) of the stock's PBR
  • 2 Fishery classified by analogy
  • * Fishery has an associated high seas component listed in Table 3

Table 3: Commercial Fisheries on the High Seas

Fishery Description # of HSFCA permits Marine mammal species/ stocks incidentally killed/ injured
CATEGORY I
DRIFT GILLNET FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species*^
4
  • Long-beaked common dolphin, CA
  • Northern right-whale dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Pacific white-sided dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Risso's dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA
  • Short-finned pilot whale, CA/OR/WA
LONGLINE FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species*+
72
  • Atlantic spotted dolphin, WNA
  • Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX oceanic
  • Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore
  • Common dolphin, WNA
  • Cuvier's beaked whale, WNA
  • Long-finned pilot whale, WNA
  • Mesoplodon beaked whale, WNA
  • Pygmy sperm whale, WNA
  • Risso's dolphin, WNA
  • Short-finned pilot whale, WNA
Western Pacific Pelagic (Deep-set component)*^
129
  • Blainville's beaked whale, HI
  • Bottlenose dolphin, HI
  • False killer whale, stock unknown
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific
  • Pantropical spotted dolphin, stock unknown
  • Risso's dolphin, HI
  • Short-finned pilot whale, HI
  • Striped dolphin, HI
CATEGORY II
DRIFT GILLNET FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species
1
Undetermined
TRAWL FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species**
2
Undetermined
Pacific Highly Migratory Species**
3
Undetermined
CCAMLR
0
  • Antarctic fur seal
South Pacific Albacore Troll
2
Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic
4
Undetermined
Unspecified
4
Undetermined
PURSE SEINE FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species*^
8
None documented
South Pacific Tuna Fisheries
36
Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic
3
Undetermined
POT VESSEL FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species**
7
Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll
5
Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic
7
Undetermined
LONGLINE FISHERIES:
CCAMLR
0
None documented
Pacific Highly Migratory Species*+
62
Risso's dolphin, CA/OR/WA
South Pacific Albacore Troll
11
Undetermined
South Pacific Tuna Fisheries**
3
Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic (Shallow-set component)*^
28
  • Bottlenose dolphin, stock unknown
  • Bryde's whale, stock unknown
  • Humpback whale, Central North Pacific
  • Risso's dolphin, stock unknown
  • Sperm whale, stock unknown
HANDLINE/POLE AND LINE FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species
1
Undetermined
Pacific Highly Migratory Species
22
Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll
8
Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic
9
Undetermined
TROLL FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species
7
Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll
53
Undetermined
South Pacific Tuna Fisheries**
3
Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic
44
Undetermined
LINERS NEI FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species**
1
Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll
1
Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic
1
Undetermined
FACTORY MOTHERSHIP FISHERIES:
Western Pacific Pelagic
1
Undetermined
MULTIPURPOSE VESSELS NEI FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species
1
Undetermined
Pacific Highly Migratory Species**
7
Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll
4
Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic
5
Undetermined
CATEGORY III
TROLL FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species*
249
None documented

List of Terms, Abbreviations, and Symbols Used in Table 3:

  • GMX- Gulf of Mexico.
  • NEI - Not Elsewhere Identified.
  • Unspecified - Identifies the number of valid high seas permits for a fishery that, as of 2004, is no longer authorized under the HSFCA-High Seas Fishery Compliance Act. Once these permits expire (valid for 5 years), fishers will be required to obtain a permit for one of the seven currently authorized HSFCA fisheries to continue fishing on the high seas.
  • WNA - Western North Atlantic.
  • * Fishery is an extension/component of an existing fishery operating within U.S. waters listed in Table 1 or 2. The number of permits listed in Table 3 represents only the number of permits for the high seas component of the fishery.
  • ** These gear types are not authorized under the Pacific HMS FMP (2004), the Atlantic HMS FMP (2006), or without a South Pacific Tuna Treaty license (in the case of the South Pacific Tuna fisheries). Because HSFCA permits are valid for five years, permits obtained in past years exist in the HSFCA permit database for gear types that are now unauthorized. Therefore, while HSFCA permits exist for these gear types, it does not represent effort. In order to land fish species, fishers must be using an authorized gear type. Once these permits for unauthorized gear types expire, the permit-holder will be required to obtain a permit for an authorized gear type.
  • + The marine mammal species or stock listed as killed or injured in this fishery has been observed taken by this fishery on the high seas.
  • ^ The list of marine mammal species killed or injured in this fishery is identical to the list of marine mammal species killed or injured in U.S. waters component of the fishery, minus coastal stocks, because the marine mammal species are also found on the high seas and the fishery remains the same on both sides of the EEZ boundary. Therefore, the high seas components of these fisheries pose the same risk to marine mammals as the fisheries operating in U.S. waters.

Table 4: Fisheries Affected by Take Reduction Teams and Plans

Take Reduction Plans Affected Fisheries
Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan (ALWTRP) - 50 CFR 229.32

Category I

  • Mid-Atlantic gillnet
  • Northeast/Mid-Atlantic American lobster trap/pot
  • Northeast sink gillnet

Category II

  • Atlantic blue crab trap/pot
  • Atlantic mixed species trap/pot
  • Northeast anchored float gillnet
  • Northeast drift gillnet
  • Southeast Atlantic gillnet
  • Southeastern U.S. Atlantic shark gillnet*
Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) - 50 CFR 229.35

Category I

  • Mid-Atlantic gillnet

Category II

  • Atlantic blue crab trap/pot
  • Mid-Atlantic haul/beach seine
  • NC inshore gillnet
  • NC long haul seine
  • NC roe mullet stop net
  • Southeast Atlantic gillnet
  • Southeastern U.S. Atlantic shark gillnet
  • VA pound net
Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan (HPTRP) - 50 CFR 229.33 (Gulf of Maine) and 50 CFR 229.34 (Mid-Atlantic)

Category I

  • Mid-Atlantic gillnet
  • Northeast sink gillnet
Pelagic Longline Take Reduction Plan (PLTRP) – 50 CFR 229.36

Category I

  • Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico large pelagics longline
Pacific Offshore Cetacean Take Reduction Plan (POCTRP) - 50 CFR 229.31

Category I

  • CA/OR thresher shark/swordfish drift gillnet (≥14 in mesh)
TRTs Affected Fisheries
Atlantic Trawl Gear Take Reduction Team (ATGTRT)

Category II

  • Mid-Atlantic Bottom Trawl
  • Mid-Atlantic Mid-Water Trawl (Including Pair Trawl)
  • Northeast Bottom Trawl
  • Northeast Mid-Water Trawl (Including Pair Trawl)

* Only applicable to the portion of the fishery operating in U.S. waters.

 

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