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2012 List of Fisheries (LOF)

« List of Fisheries Overview

The List of Fisheries (LOF) classifies U.S. commercial fisheries into Categories according to the level of interactions that result in incidental mortality or serious injury of marine mammals organized in four tables:

  1. Pacific Ocean
    Category:
    1. frequent interactions
    2. occasional interactions
    3. remote likelihood of/ no known interactions
  2. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean
    Category:
    1. frequent interactions
    2. occasional interactions
    3. remote likelihood of/ no known interactions
  3. High Seas
    Category:
    1. frequent interactions
    2. occasional interactions
    3. remote likelihood of/ no known interactions

Click on the fishery links in the table below for descriptions (current and historical) of each Category I and II fishery.

See the Federal Register notice [pdf] (76 FR 73912) for more information.


Table 1 - Commercial Fisheries in the Pacific Ocean

Fishery Description Estimated # of vessels/ persons Marine mammal species and stocks incidentally killed or injured
CATEGORY I
LONGLINE/ SET LINE FISHERIES:
HI deep-set (tuna target) longline/ set line *^
124

Blainville's beaked whale, HI

Bottlenose dolphin, HI Pelagic

False killer whale, HI Insular 1

False killer whale, HI Pelagic 1

False killer whale, Palmyra Atoll

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific

Pantropical spotted dolphin, HI

Risso's dolphin, HI

Short-finned pilot whale, HI

Striped dolphin, HI

CATEGORY II
GILLNET FISHERIES:
CA halibut/ white seabass and other species set gillnet (>3.5 in mesh)
50

California sea lion, U.S.

Harbor seal, CA

Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA 1

Long-beaked common dolphin, CA

Northern elephant seal, CA breeding

Sea otter, CA

Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA

CA yellowtail, barracuda, and white seabass drift gillnet (mesh size ≥3.5 in and <14 in) 2
30

California sea lion, U.S.

Long-beaked common dolphin, CA

Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA

CA thresher shark/ swordfish drift gillnet (≥14 in mesh) *
45

California sea lion, U.S.

Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA 1

Long-beaked common dolphin, CA

Northern elephant seal, CA breeding

Northern right-whale dolphin, CA/OR/WA

Pacific white-sided dolphin, CA/OR/WA

Risso's dolphin, CA/OR/WA

Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA

AK Bristol Bay salmon drift gillnet 2
1,862

Beluga whale, Bristol Bay

Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific

Harbor seal, Bering Sea

Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific

Pacific white-sided dolphin, North Pacific

Spotted seal, AK

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

AK Bristol Bay salmon set gillnet 2
983

Beluga whale, Bristol Bay

Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific

Harbor seal, Bering Sea

Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific

Spotted seal, AK

AK Kodiak salmon set gillnet
188

Harbor porpoise, GOA 1

Harbor seal, GOA

Sea otter, Southwest AK

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

AK Cook Inlet salmon set gillnet
738

Beluga whale, Cook Inlet

Dall's porpoise, AK

Harbor porpoise, GOA

Harbor seal, GOA

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific 1

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

AK Cook Inlet salmon drift gillnet
571

Beluga whale, Cook Inlet

Dall's porpoise, AK

Harbor porpoise, GOA 1

Harbor seal, GOA

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

AK Peninsula/ Aleutian Islands salmon drift gillnet 2
162

Dall's porpoise, AK

Harbor porpoise, GOA

Harbor seal, GOA

Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific

AK Peninsula/ Aleutian Islands salmon set gillnet 2
115

Harbor porpoise, Bering Sea

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

AK Prince William Sound salmon drift gillnet
537

Dall's porpoise, AK

Harbor porpoise, GOA 1

Harbor seal, GOA

Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific

Pacific white-sided dolphin, North Pacific

Sea otter, South Central AK

Steller sea lion, Western U.S. 1

AK Southeast salmon drift gillnet
476

Dall's porpoise, AK

Harbor porpoise, Southeast AK

Harbor seal, Southeast AK

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific 1

Pacific white-sided dolphin, North Pacific

Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.

AK Yakutat salmon set gillnet 2
166

Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific

Harbor seal, Southeast AK

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific (Southeast AK)

WA Puget Sound Region salmon drift gillnet (includes all inland waters south of US-Canada border and eastward of the Bonilla-Tatoosh line-Treaty Indian fishing is excluded)
210

Dall's porpoise, CA/OR/WA

Harbor porpoise, inland WA 1

Harbor seal, WA inland

PURSE SEINE FISHERIES:
AK Cook Inlet salmon purse seine
82
Humpback whale, Central North Pacific 1
AK Kodiak salmon purse seine
370
Humpback whale, Central North Pacific 1
TRAWL FISHERIES:
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands flatfish trawl
34

Bearded seal, AK

Harbor porpoise, Bering Sea

Harbor seal, Bering Sea

Killer whale, AK resident 1

Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific

Spotted seal, AK

Steller sea lion, Western U.S. 1

Walrus, AK

AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands pollock trawl
95

Dall's porpoise, AK

Harbor seal, AK

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific

Humpback whale, Western North Pacific

Killer whale, Eastern North Pacific, GOA, Aleutian Islands, and Bering Sea transient 1

Minke whale, AK

Ribbon seal, AK

Spotted seal, AK

Steller sea lion, Western U.S. 1

POT, RING NET, AND TRAP FISHERIES:
AK Bering Sea sablefish pot
6

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific 1

Humpback whale, Western North Pacific 1

CA spot prawn pot
27

Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific

Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA 1

CA Dungeness crab pot
534

Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific

Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA 1

OR Dungeness crab pot
433

Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific

Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA 1

WA/ OR/ CA sablefish pot
309
Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA 1
WA coastal Dungeness crab pot/ trap
228

Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific

Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA 1

LONGLINE/ SET LINE FISHERIES:
HI shallow-set (swordfish target) longline/ set line *^
28

Bottlenose dolphin, HI Pelagic 1

Bryde's whale, HI

False killer whale, HI Pelagic

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific

Kogia sp. whale (Pygmy or dwarf sperm whale), HI

Risso's dolphin, HI

Striped dolphin, HI

American Samoa longline 2
26

False killer whale, American Samoa

Rough-toothed dolphin, American Samoa

HI shortline 2
13
None documented
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Pacific cod longline
54

Killer whale, AK resident 1

Ribbon seal, AK

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

CATEGORY III
GILLNET FISHERIES:
AK Kuskokwim, Yukon, Norton Sound, Kotzebue salmon gillnet
824
Harbor porpoise, Bering Sea
AK miscellaneous finfish set gillnet
3
Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Prince William Sound salmon set gillnet
30

Harbor seal, GOA

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

AK roe herring and food/ bait herring gillnet
986
None documented
CA set gillnet (mesh size <3.5 in)
304
None documented
HI inshore gillnet
44

Bottlenose dolphin, HI

Spinner dolphin, HI

WA Grays Harbor salmon drift gillnet (excluding treaty Tribal fishing)
24
Harbor seal, OR/ WA coast
WA/ OR herring, smelt, shad, sturgeon, bottom fish, mullet, perch, rockfish gillnet
913
None documented
WA/ OR lower Columbia River (includes tributaries) drift gillnet
110

California sea lion, U.S.

Harbor seal, OR/ WA coast

WA Willapa Bay drift gillnet
82

Harbor seal, OR/ WA coast

Northern elephant seal, CA breeding

PURSE SEINE, BEACH SEINE, ROUND HAUL, THROW NET AND TANGLE NET FISHERIES:
AK Southeast salmon purse seine
415
None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
AK Metlakatla salmon purse seine
10
None documented
AK miscellaneous finfish beach seine
1
None documented
AK miscellaneous finfish purse seine
0
None documented
AK octopus/ squid purse seine
0
None documented
AK roe herring and food/ bait herring beach seine
4
None documented
AK roe herring and food/ bait herring purse seine
361
None documented
AK salmon beach seine
31
None documented
AK salmon purse seine (excluding salmon purse seine fisheries listed as Category II)
936
Harbor seal, GOA
CA anchovy, mackerel, sardine purse seine
65

California sea lion, U.S.

Harbor seal, CA

CA squid purse seine
80
Long-beaked common dolphin, CA Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA
CA tuna purse seine *
10
None documented
WA/ OR sardine purse seine
42
None documented
WA (all species) beach seine or drag seine
235
None documented
WA/ OR herring, smelt, squid purse seine or lampara
130
None documented
WA salmon purse seine
440
None documented
WA salmon reef net
53
None documented
HI opelu/ akule net
16
None documented
HI inshore purse seine
5
None documented
HI throw net, cast net
22
None documented
HI hukilau net
27
None documented
HI lobster tangle net
1
None documented
DIP NET FISHERIES:
CA squid dip net
115
None documented
WA/ OR smelt, herring dip net
119
None documented
MARINE AQUACULTURE FISHERIES:
CA marine shellfish aquaculture
unknown
None documented
CA salmon enhancement rearing pen
>1
None documented
CA white seabass enhancement net pens
13
California sea lion, U.S.
HI offshore pen culture
2
None documented
OR salmon ranch
1
None documented
WA/ OR salmon net pens
14

California sea lion, U.S.

Harbor seal, WA inland waters

TROLL FISHERIES:
AK North Pacific halibut, AK bottom fish, WA/ OR/ CA albacore, groundfish, bottom fish, CA halibut non-salmonid troll fisheries *
1,302 (102 AK)
None documented
AK salmon troll
2,045

Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

American Samoa tuna troll
<50
None documented
CA/OR/WA salmon troll
4,300
None documented
HI trolling, rod and reel
2,191
None documented
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands tuna troll
88
None documented
Guam tuna troll
401
None documented
LONGLINE/ SET LINE FISHERIES:
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Greenland turbot longline
29
Killer whale, AK resident
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands rockfish longline
0
None documented
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands sablefish longline
28
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska halibut longline
1,302
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska Pacific cod longline
440
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska rockfish longline
0
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska sablefish longline
291

Sperm whale, North Pacific

Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.

AK halibut longline/ set line (State and Federal waters)
2,521
Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK octopus/ squid longline
2
None documented
AK State-managed waters longline/ setline (including sablefish, rockfish, lingcod, and miscellaneous finfish)
1,448
None documented
WA/ OR/ CA groundfish, bottomfish longline/ set line
367
None documented
WA/ OR North Pacific halibut longline/ set line
350
None documented
CA pelagic longline*
6
None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
HI kaka line
24
None documented
HI vertical longline
10
None documented
TRAWL FISHERIES:
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Atka mackerel trawl
9
Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Pacific cod trawl
93

Harbor seal, Bering Sea

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands rockfish trawl
10
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska flatfish trawl
41
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska Pacific cod trawl
62
Steller sea lion, Western U.S.
AK Gulf of Alaska pollock trawl
62

Fin whale, Northeast Pacific

Northern elephant seal, North Pacific

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

AK Gulf of Alaska rockfish trawl
34
None documented
AK food/ bait herring trawl
4
None documented
AK miscellaneous finfish otter / beam trawl
317
None documented
AK shrimp otter trawl and beam trawl (statewide and Cook Inlet)
32
None documented
AK State-managed waters of Cook Inlet, Kachemak Bay, Prince William Sound, Southeast AK groundfish trawl
2
None documented
CA halibut bottom trawl
53
None documented
WA/ OR/ CA shrimp trawl
300
None documented
WA/ OR/ CA groundfish trawl
160-180

California sea lion, U.S.

Dall's porpoise, CA/OR/WA

Harbor seal, OR/ WA coast

Northern fur seal, Eastern Pacific

Pacific white-sided dolphin, CA/OR/WA

Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.

POT, RING NET, AND TRAP FISHERIES:
AK statewide miscellaneous finfish pot
293
None documented
AK Aleutian Islands sablefish pot
8
None documented
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands Pacific cod pot
68
None documented
AK Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands crab pot
297
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska crab pot
300
None documented
AK Gulf of Alaska Pacific cod pot
154
Harbor seal, GOA
AK Southeast Alaska crab pot
433
Humpback whale, Central North Pacific (Southeast AK)
AK Southeast Alaska shrimp pot
283
Humpback whale, Central North Pacific (Southeast AK)
AK shrimp pot, except Southeast
15
None documented
AK octopus/ squid pot
27
None documented
AK snail pot
1
None documented
CA coonstripe shrimp, rock crab, tanner crab pot or trap
305

Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific

Harbor seal, CA

CA spiny lobster
225
Gray whale, Eastern North Pacific
OR/ CA hagfish pot or trap
54
None documented
WA/ OR shrimp pot/ trap
254
None documented
WA Puget Sound Dungeness crab pot/ trap
249
None documented
HI crab trap
5
None documented
HI fish trap
13
None documented
HI lobster trap
1
Hawaiian monk seal
HI shrimp trap
2
None documented
HI crab net
5
None documented
HI Kona crab loop net
46
None documented
HANDLINE AND JIG FISHERIES:
AK miscellaneous finfish handline/ hand troll and mechanical jig
445
None documented
AK North Pacific halibut handline/ hand troll and mechanical jig
228
None documented
AK octopus/ squid handline
0
None documented
American Samoa bottomfish
<50
None documented
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands bottomfish
<50
None documented
Guam bottomfish
200
None documented
HI aku boat, pole, and line
2
None documented
HI Main Hawaiian Islands deep-sea bottomfish handline
569
Hawaiian monk seal
HI inshore handline
416
None documented
HI tuna handline
445
None documented
WA groundfish, bottomfish jig
679
None documented
Western Pacific squid jig
6
None documented
HARPOON FISHERIES:
CA swordfish harpoon
30
None documented
POUND NET/ WEIR FISHERIES:
AK herring spawn on kelp pound net
415
None documented
AK Southeast herring roe/ food/ bait pound net
6
None documented
WA herring brush weir
1
None documented
HI bullpen trap
4
None documented
BAIT PENS:    
WA/ OR/ CA bait pens
13
California sea lion, U.S.
DREDGE FISHERIES:
Coastwide scallop dredge
108 (12 AK)
None documented
DIVE, HAND/ MECHANICAL COLLECTION FISHERIES:
AK abalone
0
None documented
AK clam
156
None documented
WA herring spawn on kelp
4
None documented
AK Dungeness crab
2
None documented
AK herring spawn on kelp
266
None documented
AK urchin and other fish/ shellfish
570
None documented
CA abalone
0
None documented
CA sea urchin
583
None documented
HI black coral diving
1
None documented
HI fish pond
16
None documented
HI handpick
61
None documented
HI lobster diving
39
None documented
HI spearfishing
144
None documented
WA/ CA kelp
4
None documented
WA/ OR sea urchin, other clam, octopus, oyster, sea cucumber, scallop, ghost shrimp hand, dive, or mechanical collection
637
None documented
WA shellfish aquaculture
684
None documented
COMMERCIAL PASSENGER FISHING VESSEL (CHARTER BOAT) FISHERIES:
AK/ WA/ OR/ CA commercial passenger fishing vessel
>7,000 (2,702 AK)

Killer whale, stock unknown

Steller sea lion, Eastern U.S.

Steller sea lion, Western U.S.

HI charter vessel
114
None documented
LIVE FINFISH/ SHELLFISH FISHERIES:
CA nearshore finfish live trap/ hook-and-line
93
None documented

List of Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Table 1:

  • AK - Alaska
  • CA - California
  • GOA - Gulf of Alaska
  • HI - Hawaii
  • OR - Oregon
  • WA - Washington
  • 1 Fishery classified based on serious injuries and mortalities of this stock, which are greater than 50 percent (Category I) or greater than 1 percent and less than 50 percent (Category II) of the stock's PBR
  • 2 Fishery classified by analogy
  • * Fishery has an associated high seas component listed in Table 3
  • ^ The list of marine mammal species or stocks killed or injured in this fishery is identical to the list of species or stocks killed or injured in high seas component of the fishery, minus species or stocks have geographic ranges exclusively on the high seas. The species or stocks are found, and the fishery remains the same, on both sides of the EEZ boundary. Therefore, the EEZ components of these fisheries pose the same risk to marine mammals as the components operating on the high seas.


Table 2 - List of Fisheries -- Commercial Fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean

Fishery Description Estimated # of vessels/ persons Marine mammal species and stocks incidentally killed or injured
CATEGORY I
GILLNET FISHERIES:
Mid-Atlantic gillnet 6,402

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern Migratory coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern Migratory coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern NC estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern NC estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore

Common dolphin, WNA

Gray seal, WNA

Harbor porpoise, GME/ BF

Harbor seal, WNA

Harp seal, WNA

Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine

Long-finned pilot whale, WNA

Minke whale, Canadian east coast

Short-finned pilot whale, WNA

White-sided dolphin, WNA

Northeast sink gillnet 3,828

Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore

Common dolphin, WNA

Fin whale, WNA

Gray seal, WNA

Harbor porpoise, GME/ BF 1

Harbor seal, WNA

Harp seal, WNA

Hooded seal, WNA

Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine

Minke whale, Canadian east coast

North Atlantic right whale, WNA

Risso's dolphin, WNA

White-sided dolphin, WNA

TRAP/ POT FISHERIES:
Northeast/ Mid-Atlantic American lobster trap/ pot 11,767

Harbor seal, WNA

Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine

Minke whale, Canadian east coast

North Atlantic right whale, WNA 1

LONGLINE FISHERIES:
Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico large pelagics longline * 94

Atlantic spotted dolphin, GMX continental and oceanic

Atlantic spotted dolphin, WNA

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX oceanic

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX continental shelf

Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore

Common dolphin, WNA

Cuvier's beaked whale, WNA

Gervais beaked whale, GMX oceanic

Killer whale, GMX oceanic

Long-finned pilot whale, WNA 1

Mesoplodon beaked whale, WNA

Northern bottlenose whale, WNA

Pantropical spotted dolphin, Northern GMX

Pantropical spotted dolphin, WNA

Risso's dolphin, Northern GMX

Risso's dolphin, WNA

Short-finned pilot whale, Northern GMX

Short-finned pilot whale, WNA 1

Sperm whale, GMX oceanic

CATEGORY II
GILLNET FISHERIES:
Chesapeake Bay inshore gillnet 2 3,328 None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
Gulf of Mexico gillnet 2 724

Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, and estuarine

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal

NC inshore gillnet 2,250

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern NC estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern NC estuarine system 1

Northeast anchored float gillnet 2 414

Harbor seal, WNA

Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine

White-sided dolphin, WNA

Northeast drift gillnet 2 414 None documented
Southeast Atlantic gillnet 2 779

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern Migratory coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, SC/ GA coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Central FL coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern FL coastal

Southeastern U.S. Atlantic shark gillnet 30

Atlantic spotted dolphin, WNA

Bottlenose dolphin, Central FL coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern FL coastal

North Atlantic right whale, WNA

TRAWL FISHERIES
Mid-Atlantic mid-water trawl (including pair trawl) 669

Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore

Common dolphin, WNA

Long-finned pilot whale, WNA

Risso's dolphin, WNA

Short-finned pilot whale, WNA

White-sided dolphin, WNA 1

Mid-Atlantic bottom trawl 1,388

Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore

Common dolphin, WNA 1

Harbor seal, WNA

Long-finned pilot whale, WNA 1

Risso's dolphin, WNA 1

Short-finned pilot whale, WNA 1

White-sided dolphin, WNA

Northeast mid-water trawl (including pair trawl) 887

Harbor seal, WNA

Long-finned pilot whale, WNA 1

Short-finned pilot whale, WNA 1

White-sided dolphin, WNA

Northeast bottom trawl 2,584

Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore

Common dolphin, WNA

Gray seal, WNA

Harbor porpoise, GME/ BF

Harbor seal, WNA

Harp seal, WNA

Long-finned pilot whale, WNA

Short-finned pilot whale, WNA

White-sided dolphin, WNA 1

Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl 4,950

Atlantic spotted dolphin, GMX continental and oceanic

Bottlenose dolphin, SC/ GA coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, GMX continental shelf

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, estuarine 1

West Indian manatee, FL

TRAP/ POT FISHERIES:
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico stone crab trap/ pot 2 1,282

Bottlenose dolphin, Biscayne Bay estuarine

Bottlenose dolphin, Central FL coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, FL Bay

Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, estuarine (FL west coast portion)

Bottlenose dolphin, Indian River Lagoon estuarine system

Bottlenose dolphin, Jacksonville estuarine system

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal

Atlantic mixed species trap/ pot 2 3,526

Fin whale, WNA

Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine

Atlantic blue crab trap/ pot 10,008

Bottlenose dolphin, Charleston estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Indian River Lagoon estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Jacksonville estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, SC/ GA coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GA/ Southern SC estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern GA estuarine system 1 Bottlenose dolphin, Northern Migratory coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern Migratory coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Central FL coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern FL coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern NC estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern NC estuarine system 1

West Indian manatee, FL 1

PURSE SEINE FISHERIES:
Gulf of Mexico menhaden purse seine 40-42

Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, estuarine

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal 1

Mid-Atlantic menhaden purse seine 2 56

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern Migratory coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern Migratory coastal

HAUL/ BEACH SEINE FISHERIES:
Mid-Atlantic haul/ beach seine 874

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern NC estuarine system 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern Migratory coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern Migratory coastal 1

NC long haul seine 372

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern NC estuarine system

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern NC estuarine system 1

STOP NET FISHERIES:
NC roe mullet stop net 13 Bottlenose dolphin, Southern NC estuarine system 1
POUND NET FISHERIES:
VA pound net 231

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern NC estuarine system

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern Migratory coastal 1

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern Migratory coastal 1

CATEGORY III
GILLNET FISHERIES:
Caribbean gillnet >991 Dwarf sperm whale, WNA
DE River inshore gillnet unknown None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
Long Island Sound inshore gillnet unknown None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
RI, southern MA (to Monomoy Island), and NY Bight (Raritan and Lower NY Bays) inshore gillnet unknown None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
Southeast Atlantic inshore gillnet unknown None documented
TRAWL FISHERIES:
Atlantic shellfish bottom trawl >86 None documented
Gulf of Mexico butterfish trawl 2

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX oceanic

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX continental shelf

Gulf of Mexico mixed species trawl 20 None documented
GA cannonball jellyfish trawl 1 None documented
MARINE AQUACULTURE FISHERIES:
Finfish aquaculture 48 Harbor seal, WNA
Shellfish aquaculture unknown None documented
PURSE SEINE FISHERIES:    
Gulf of Maine Atlantic herring purse seine >6

Harbor seal, WNA

Gray seal, WNA

Gulf of Maine menhaden purse seine >2 None documented
FL West Coast sardine purse seine 10 Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal
U.S. Atlantic tuna purse seine * 5

Long-finned pilot whale, WNA

Short-finned pilot whale, WNA

LONGLINE/ HOOK-AND-LINE FISHERIES:
Northeast/ Mid-Atlantic bottom longline/ hook-and-line >1,281 None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
Gulf of Maine, U.S. Mid-Atlantic tuna, shark swordfish hook-and-line/ harpoon >403 Humpback whale, Gulf of Maine
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean snapper-grouper and other reef fish bottom longline/ hook-and-line >5,000 Bottlenose dolphin, GMX continental shelf
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico shark bottom longline/ hook-and-line <125

Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX continental shelf

Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean pelagic hook-and-line/ harpoon 1,446 None documented
U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico trotline unknown None documented
TRAP/ POT FISHERIES
Caribbean mixed species trap/ pot >501 None documented
Caribbean spiny lobster trap/ pot >197 None documented
FL spiny lobster trap/ pot 1,268

Bottlenose dolphin, Biscayne Bay estuarine

Bottlenose dolphin, Central FL coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, FL Bay estuarine

Gulf of Mexico blue crab trap/ pot 4,113

Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, estuarine

West Indian manatee, FL

Gulf of Mexico mixed species trap/ pot unknown None documented
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico golden crab trap/ pot 10 None documented
U.S. Mid-Atlantic eel trap/ pot unknown None documented
STOP SEINE/ WEIR/ POUND NET/ FLOATING TRAP FISHERIES:
Gulf of Maine herring and Atlantic mackerel stop seine/ weir unknown

Gray seal, WNA

Harbor porpoise, GME/ BF

Harbor seal, WNA

Minke whale, Canadian east coast

White-sided dolphin, WNA

U.S. Mid-Atlantic crab stop seine/ weir 2,600 None documented
U.S. Mid-Atlantic mixed species stop seine/ weir/ pound net (except the NC roe mullet stop net) unknown Bottlenose dolphin, Northern NC estuarine system
RI floating trap 9 None documented
DREDGE FISHERIES:
Gulf of Maine mussel dredge unknown None documented
Gulf of Maine, U.S. Mid-Atlantic sea scallop dredge >230 None documented
U.S. Mid-Atlantic/ Gulf of Mexico oyster dredge 7,000 None documented
U.S. Mid-Atlantic offshore surf clam and quahog dredge unknown None documented
HAUL/ BEACH SEINE FISHERIES:
Caribbean haul/ beach seine 15 None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
Gulf of Mexico haul/ beach seine unknown None documented
Southeastern U.S. Atlantic haul/ beach seine 25 None documented
DIVE, HAND/ MECHANICAL COLLECTION FISHERIES:
Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean shellfish dive, hand/ mechanical collection 20,000 None documented
Gulf of Maine urchin dive, hand/ mechanical collection unknown None documented
Gulf of Mexico, Southeast Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, and Caribbean cast net unknown None documented
COMMERCIAL PASSENGER FISHING VESSEL (CHARTER BOAT) FISHERIES:
Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean commercial passenger fishing vessel 4,000

Bottlenose dolphin, Eastern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Western GMX coastal

Bottlenose dolphin, Biscayne Bay estuarine

Bottlenose dolphin, GMX bay, sound, estuarine

Bottlenose dolphin, Indian River Lagoon estuarine system

Bottlenose dolphin, Southern NC estuarine system


List of Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Table 2:

  • DE - Delaware
  • FL - Florida
  • GA - Georgia
  • GME/ BF - Gulf of Maine/ Bay of Fundy
  • GMX - Gulf of Mexico
  • MA - Massachusetts
  • NC - North Carolina
  • SC- South Carolina
  • VA - Virginia
  • WNA - Western North Atlantic
  • 1 Fishery classified based on serious injuries and mortalities of this stock, which are greater than 50 percent (Category I) or greater than 1 percent and less than 50 percent (Category II) of the stock's PBR
  • 2 Fishery classified by analogy
  • * Fishery has an associated high seas component listed in Table 3


Table 3 - Commercial Fisheries on the High Seas

Fishery Description Estimated # of vessels/ persons Marine mammal species and stocks incidentally killed or injured
CATEGORY I
LONGLINE FISHERIES:    
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species * + 81

Atlantic spotted dolphin, WNA

Bottlenose dolphin, Northern GMX oceanic

Bottlenose dolphin, WNA offshore

Common dolphin, WNA

Cuvier's beaked whale, WNA

Long-finned pilot whale, WNA

Mesoplodon beaked whale, WNA

Pygmy sperm whale, WNA

Risso's dolphin, WNA

Short-finned pilot whale, WNA

Western Pacific Pelagic (HI Deep-set component) * ^+ 124

Blainville's beaked whale, HI

Blainville's beaked whale, unknown

Bottlenose dolphin, HI Pelagic

Bottlenose dolphin, unknown

False killer whale, HI Pelagic

False killer whale, unknown

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific

Pantropical spotted dolphin, HI

Pantropical spotted dolphin, unknown

Risso's dolphin, HI

Risso's dolphin, unknown

Short-finned pilot whale, HI

Short-finned pilot whale, unknown

Striped dolphin, HI

Striped dolphin, unknown

Category II
DRIFT GILLNET FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species 1 Undetermined
Pacific Highly Migratory Species * ^ 3

Long-beaked common dolphin, CA

Humpback whale, CA/OR/WA

Northern right-whale dolphin, CA/OR/WA

Pacific white-sided dolphin, CA/OR/WA

Risso's dolphin, CA/OR/WA

Short-beaked common dolphin, CA/OR/WA

TRAWL FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species ** 3 Undetermined
CCAMLR 0 Antarctic fur seal
Western Pacific Pelagic 1 Undetermined
PURSE SEINE FISHERIES:
South Pacific Tuna Fisheries 33 Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic 3 Undetermined
POT VESSEL FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species ** 3 Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll 3 Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic 3 Undetermined
LONGLINE FISHERIES:
CCAMLR 0 None documented
South Pacific Albacore Troll 11 Undetermined
South Pacific Tuna Fisheries ** 11 Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic (HI Shallow-set component) * ^+ 28

Bottlenose dolphin, HI Pelagic

Bottlenose dolphin, unknown

Bryde's whale, HI

Bryde's whale, unknown

Humpback whale, Central North Pacific

Kogia sp. whale (Pygmy or dwarf sperm whale), HI

Kogia sp. whale (Pygmy or dwarf sperm whale), unknown

Risso's dolphin, HI

Risso's dolphin, unknown

Striped dolphin, HI

Striped dolphin, unknown

HANDLINE/ POLE AND LINE FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species 3 Undetermined
Pacific Highly Migratory Species 30 Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll 8 Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic 8 Undetermined
TROLL FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species 7 Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll 51 Undetermined
South Pacific Tuna Fisheries ** 3 Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic 32 Undetermined
LINERS NEI FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species ** 1 Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll 1 Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic 1 Undetermined
FACTORY MOTHERSHIP FISHERIES:
Western Pacific Pelagic 1 Undetermined
MULTIPURPOSE VESSELS NEI FISHERIES:
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species 1 Undetermined
Pacific Highly Migratory Species ** 5 Undetermined
South Pacific Albacore Troll 4 Undetermined
Western Pacific Pelagic 4 Undetermined
Category III
LONGLINE FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species * + 84 None documented in the most recent 5 years of data
PURSE SEINE FISHERIES
Atlantic Highly Migratory Species * ^ 0 Long-finned pilot whale, WNA
Pacific Highly Migratory Species * ^ 7 None documented
TROLL FISHERIES:
Pacific Highly Migratory Species * 258 None documented

List of Terms, Abbreviations, and Symbols Used in Table 3:

  • GMX- Gulf of Mexico
  • NEI - Not Elsewhere Identified
  • WNA - Western North Atlantic.
  • * Fishery is an extension/ component of an existing fishery operating within U.S. waters listed in Table 1 or 2. The number of permits listed in Table 3 represents only the number of permits for the high seas component of the fishery.
  • ** These gear types are not authorized under the Pacific HMS FMP (2004), the Atlantic HMS FMP (2006), or without a South Pacific Tuna Treaty license (in the case of the South Pacific Tuna fisheries). Because HSFCA permits are valid for five years, permits obtained in past years exist in the HSFCA permit database for gear types that are now unauthorized. Therefore, while HSFCA permits exist for these gear types, it does not represent effort. In order to land fish species, fishers must be using an authorized gear type. Once these permits for unauthorized gear types expire, the permit-holder will be required to obtain a permit for an authorized gear type.
  • + The marine mammal species or stocks listed as killed or injured in this fishery has been observed taken by this fishery on the high seas.
  • ^ The list of marine mammal species or stocks killed or injured in this fishery is identical to the list of marine mammal species or stocks killed or injured in U.S. waters component of the fishery, minus species or stocks that have geographic ranges exclusively in coastal waters, because the marine mammal species or stocks are also found on the high seas and the fishery remains the same on both sides of the EEZ boundary. Therefore, the high seas components of these fisheries pose the same risk to marine mammals as the components of these fisheries operating in U.S. waters.

Updated: July 20, 2012

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