ESA Biennial Report to Congress
Success Stories of the Endangered Species Act
2010-2012 Biennial Report
The current report spans October 1, 2010 to September 30, 2012 (FY 2011- FY 2012). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) Biennial Report to Congress on the Recovery Program for Threatened and Endangered Species (the "Report") summarizes efforts to recover all domestic species under NOAA Fisheries' jurisdiction.
During the 2 years covered in the Report, NOAA Fisheries had jurisdiction over 70 domestic species:
- 42 fish
- 9 sea turtles
- 14 marine mammals
- 4 invertebrates
- 1 plant
Species listed after September 30, 2012 are not included in this Report.
The Report includes a summary table outlining the status of each species, the status of the recovery plan, and the date the last 5-year review was completed. The report also highlights the recovery stories of a selection of species. The 70 domestic species we address in this report include seven newly listed species:
- Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), relisted as 9 Distinct Population Segments (DPS) (two domestic DPS) on September 22, 2011 (76 FR 58868):
- North Pacific Ocean DPS listed as endangered
- Northwest Atlantic Ocean DPS listed as threatened
- Atlantic sturgeon, listed as 5 DPSs on February 6, 2012 (77 FR 5880 and 5914):
- Gulf of Maine listed as threatened
- New York Bight DPS listed as endangered
- Chesapeake Bay DPS listed as endangered
- Carolina DPS listed as endangered
- South Atlantic DPS listed as endangered
Between October 1, 2010, and September 30, 2012, the status of the 70 domestic endangered or threatened species listed under the ESA was as follows:
- 27 (39%) were stabilized or improving
- 16 (23%) were known to be declining
- 6 (8%) were mixed, with their status varying by population location
- 21 (30%) were unknown, because we lacked sufficient data to make a determination
Partnerships for Recovery
Recovery of threatened and endangered species is a complex and challenging process, but one which also offers long-term benefits to the health of our environment and our communities.
Actions to achieve a species' recovery may require:
- restoring or preserving habitat
- minimizing or offsetting effects of actions that harm species
- enhancing population numbers
- or a combination of the above
Many of these actions also help to provide communities with healthier ecosystems, cleaner water, and greater opportunities for recreation, both now and in future generations.
Recovery actions discussed in this report are funded and implemented by many partners--Federal, state, tribal, non-profit, and private. Partnerships with a variety of stakeholders, including private citizens, federal, state and local agencies, tribes, interested organizations, and industry, are critical to achieving species recovery goals.
NOAA programs that directly fund recovery actions include:
- Species Recovery Grants to States: ($7.99M in FY 2011, $2.78M in FY 2012)*
- Species Recovery Grants to Tribes
- Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund: ($79.8M in FY 2011, $65M in FY 2012)
The Species Recovery Grant Program, authorized under section 6 of the Endangered Species Act, provides grant funding to partnering state agencies to support management, outreach, research, and monitoring projects that have direct conservation benefits for listed species.
NOAA Fisheries began the Species Recovery Grants to Tribes program in FY 2010 to support tribally led recovery efforts that directly benefit listed species.
The Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) was established by Congress in FY 2000 to protect, restore, and conserve Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and their habitats.
Projects funded through these programs often address priority actions identified in recovery plans and thus make important contributions to the recovery of listed species.
Want to get involved? Contact your local NOAA Fisheries regional office, state wildlife agency, or tribal wildlife agency to find out how you can help participate in recovery efforts for local endangered species.
Read the full report [pdf] [2.7 MB]
- 2010-2012 [pdf] [2.7 MB]
- 2008-2010 [pdf] [4.7 MB]
- 2006-2008 [pdf] [3.3 MB]
- 2004-2006 [pdf] [1.3 MB]
- 2002-2004 [pdf] [3.7 MB]
- 2000-2002 [pdf] [1.1 MB]
- 1998-2000 [pdf] [1.6 MB]
- 1996-1998 [pdf] [5.9 MB]
- 1994-1996 [pdf] [569 KB]
- 1992-1994 [pdf] [7.0 MB]
- 1989-1991 [pdf] [1.9 MB]
For a hard copy of a report, please contact us.
- Endangered Species Act
- Publications from NOAA Fisheries Office of Protected Resources
- Species protected under the ESA
Updated: November 26, 2013