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Literature Cited in the Final Rule to Remove the Sunset Provision

The following is a list of literature cited in the Final Rule to Remove the Sunset Provision of the Final Rule Implementing Vessel Speed Restrictions to Reduce the Threat of Ship Collisions With North Atlantic Right Whales:

Best, P.B., J.L. Bannister, R.L. Brownell, Jr., and G.P. Donovan. Eds. 2001. Right whales: worldwide status. Journal of Cetacean Research Management (Special Issue) 2. 309 pages.

Brownell, R.L., Jr., P.B. Best, and J.H. Prescott. 1986. Right Whales: Past and Present. Proceedings of the workshop on the status of right whales. Boston, MA 15-23 June. Reports of the Internataional Whaling Commission. Special Issue 10.. Cambridge, UK.

Browning, C.L., R.M. Rolland and S.D. Kraus 2010. Estimated calf and perinatal mortality in western North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). Mar. Mamm. Sci. 26(3):648-662.

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). 2012. Notice to lessees and operators of federal oil, gas, and sulphur leases in the Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. Vessel strike avoidance and injured/dead protected species. NTL No. 2007-G04. http://www.boem.gov/Regulations/Notices-To-Lessees/2012/2012-JOINT-G01-pdf.aspx

Calleson, C.S., and R.K. Frolich. 2007. Slower boat speeds reduce risks to manatees. Endang. Species Res. 3: 295-304.

Campbell-Malone, R., 2007. Biomechanics of North Atlantic Right Whale Bone: Mandibular Fracture as a Fatal Endpoint for Blunt Vessel-Whale Collision Modeling, Doctoral Thesis in Biological Oceanography. Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Cambridge, MA. 257 pages.

Campbell-Malone R., S.G. Barco, P.Y. Daoust, A.R. Knowlton, W.A. McLellan, D.S. Rotstein, and M.J. Moore. 2008. Gross and histologic evidence of sharp and blunt trauma in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) killed by vessels. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(1):37-55.

Caswell, H., M. Fujiwara, and S. Brault. 1999. Declining survival probability threatens the North Atlantic right whale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96:3308 3313.

Clapham, P., S. Young, and R.L. Brownell. 1999. Baleen whales: Conservation issues and the status of the most endangered populations. Mammal Review 29:35-60.

Clyne, H. 1999. Computer simulations of interactions between the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) and shipping. MSc Thesis, Napier University. Edinburgh, Scotland. 53 p.

Conn, P.B. and G.K. Silber. 2013. Vessel speed restrictions reduce risk of collision-related mortality for North Atlantic right whales. Ecosphere 4(4):43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES13-00004.1

Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). 2013. Local Notice to Mariners. District 11, Week 28/13 (pages 11 and 12). http://navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/lnms/lnm11282013.pdf.

Firestone, J. 2009. Policy considerations and measures to reduce the likelihood of vessel collisions with great whales. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 36:389-400.

Fujiwara, M. and H. Caswell. 2001. Demography of the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Nature 414:537-543.

Gende, S., N. Hendrix, K. Harris, B. Eichenlaub, J. Nielsen, and S. Pyare. 2011. A bayesian approach for understanding the role of ship speed in whale-ship encounters. Ecological Applications 21:2232-2240.

Hamilton, P.K., A.R. Knowlton and M.K. Marx. 2007. Right whales tell their own stories: The photo-identification catalog. Pages 75-104 in: S.D. Kraus and R.M. Rolland, (eds.) The urban whale: North Atlantic right whales at the crossroads. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Henry A.G., T.V.N, Cole, M. Garron, L. Hall, W. Ledwell, and A. Reid. 2012. Mortality and Serious Injury Determinations for Baleen Whale Stocks along the Gulf of Mexico, United States East Coast and Atlantic Canadian Provinces, 2006-2010. US Dept Commer, Northeast Fisheries Science Center Ref Doc. 12-11; 24 pages. http://nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/

Hazel, J. and E. Gyuris. 2006. Vessel-related mortality of sea turtles in Queensland, Australia. Wildlife Research 33:149-154.

Hazel, J., I.R. Lawler, H. Marsh, and S. Robson. 2007. Vessel speed increases collision risk for the green turtle Chelonia mydas. Endangered Species Research 3:105-113.

Jensen, A.S. and G.K. Silber. 2003. Large whale ship strike database. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/OPR 25.

Knowlton, A.R., F.T. Korsmeyer, J.E. Kerwin, H.Y. Wu and B. Hynes. 1995. The hydrodynamic effects of large vessels on right whales. Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service. Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, MA. NMFS Contract No. 40EANFF400534.

Knowlton, A.R., F.T. Korsmeyer, B. Hynes. 1998. The hydrodynamic effects of large vessels on right whales: phase two. Final Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service. Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, MA. Contract No. 46ANF60004.

Knowlton, A.R. and S.D. Kraus. 2001. Mortality and serious injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Cetacean Research Management (Special Issue) 2:193-208.

Knowlton, A.R. and M.W. Brown. 2007. Running the gauntlet: right whales and vessel strikes. In: Kraus, S.D. and R.M. Rolland (eds.) The Urban Whale.  North Atlantic Right Whales at the Crossroads. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Knowlton, A.R., P.K. Hamilton, M.K. Marx, H.M. Pettis, S.D. Kraus. 2012 Monitoring North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis entanglement rates: a 30 yr. retrospective. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 466:293-302.

Kraus, S.D. 1990. Rates and potential causes of mortality in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). Marine Mammal Science. 6:278-291.

Kraus, S.D., P.K. Hamilton, R.D. Kenney, A Knowlton, and C.K. Slay. 2001. Reproductive parameters of the North Atlantic right whale. Journal of Cetacean Research Management (Special Issue) 2:231-236.

Kraus, S.D., M.W. Brown, H. Caswell, C.W. Clark, M. Fujiwara, P.K. Hamilton, R.D. Kenney, A.R. Knowlton, S. Landry, C.A. Mayo, W.A. McLellan, M.J. Moore, D.P. Nowacek, D.A. Pabst, A.J. Read, and R.M. Rolland. 2005. North Atlantic right whales in crisis. Science 309:561-562.

Kraus S.D. and R.M. Rolland. (eds.) 2007. The Urban Whale: North Atlantic Right Whales at the Crossroads. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Lagueux, K.M., M.A. Zani, A.R. Knowlton, S.D. Kraus. 2011. Response by vessel operators to protection measures for right whales Eubalaena glacialis in the southeast US calving ground. Endangered Species Research. 14:69-77.

Laist D.W., A.R. Knowlton, J.G. Meade, A.S. Collet, and M. Podesta. 2001. Collisions between ships and whales. Marine Mammal Science 17:35-75.

Laist, D.W. and C. Shaw. 2006. Preliminary evidence that boat speed restrictions reduce deaths of Florida manatees. Marine Mammal Science 22:472-479.

Moore, M.J., A.R. Knowlton, S.D. Kraus, W.A. McLellan, and R.K. Bonde. 2005. Morphometry, gross morphology and available histopathology in North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) mortalities (1970-2002). Journal of Cetacean Research Management 6:199-214.

Nathan Associates Inc. 2008. Economic analysis for the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the North Atlantic right whale ship strike reduction strategy. Report to the Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, NOAA. August 2008. 165 pages. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/shipstrike/.

Nathan Associates Inc. 2012. Economic Analysis of North Atlantic Right Whale Ship Strike Reduction Rule: Update of Economic Impact and Scoping Assessment for Study of Potential Modifications. Report to the Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, NOAA. December 2012. Available at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/shipstrike/.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2004. Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Right Whale Ship Strike Reduction. U.S. Department of Commerce. 69 FR 30857, 1 June 2004.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2005. Recovery Plan for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis), Revision. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2006. Proposed Rule to Implement Speed Restrictions to Reduce the Threat of Ship Collisions with North Atlantic Right Whales. U.S. Department of Commerce. 71 FR 36299, 26 June 2006.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2007a. Endangered Species Act Section 7 Consultation on issuance of license to Neptune LNG by MARAD to construct, own, and operate an LNG deepwater port. NMFS Northeast Regional Office, Gloucester, MA. January 12, 2007.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2007b. Endangered Species Act Section 7 Reinitiation of Consultation on issuance of license to Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge, LLC by MARAD to construct, own, and operate an LNG deepwater port. NMFS

Northeast Regional Office, Gloucester, MA. November 11, 2007.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2008. Final Rule to Implement Speed Restrictions to Reduce the Threat of Ship Collisions With North Atlantic Right Whales. U.S. Department of Commerce. 73 FR 60173, 8 November 2008.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2013a. Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Notice; issuance of an incidental take authorization. 78 FR 47496.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2013b. Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Notice; issuance of an incidental take authorization. 78 FR 51147.

National Park Service (NPS). 2003. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Vessel Quotas and Operating Requirements. Final Environmental Impact Statement. U.S. Department of Interior.

Norris, T.N. 2008. Lethal speed: An analysis of the proposed rule to implement vessel speed restrictions and its impact on the declining right whale population as well as the shipping and whalewatching industries. Ocean and Coastal Law Journal 13:339-367.

Pace, R.M. and G.K. Silber. 2005. (Abstract) Simple analyses of ship and large whale collisions: Does speed kill? Sixteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Diego, December 2005.

Pace, R.M. III. 2011. Frequency of whale and vessel collisions on the US eastern seaboard: Ten years prior and two years post ship strike rule. NOAA/NEFSC Reference Document 11-15.

Silber, G.K., J. Slutsky, and S. Bettridge. 2010. Hydrodynamics of a ship/whale collision. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 391:10-19.

Silber, G.K. and S. Bettridge. 2012. An assessment of the final rule to implement vessel speed restrictions to reduce the threat of vessel collisions with North Atlantic right whales. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-OPR-48. www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/shipstrike/

Silber, G.K., A.S.M. Vanderlaan, A. Tejedor-Arceredillo, L. Johnson, C.T. Taggart, M.W. Brown, S. Bettridge, and R. Sagarminaga. 2012b. Role of the International Maritime Organization in large whale vessel strike reduction: Processes, measures and effectiveness. Marine Policy 36:1221-1233.

Tejedor, A., R. Sagarminaga, A. Canadas, R. de Stephanis, and J. Pantoja. 2007. Modifications of maritime traffic off southern Spain. International Whaling Commission document SC/59/BC13.

Tejedor, A. and R. Sagarminaga. 2010. Regional case studies: The Alborán Sea TSS reconfiguration vs. speed recommendation. IWC/s10/SSW5.3. In: Report of the Joint IWC-ACCOBAMS Workshop on Reducing Risk of Collisions between Vessels and Cetaceans. IWC Ship Strikes Working Group. Report of the Joint IWC-ACCOBAMS Workshop on Ship Strikes, Beaulieu-sur-Mer, France, 21-24 September 2010. http://iwcoffice.org/meetings/shipstrikes10.htm.

van der Hoop, J.M., M.J. Moore, S.G. Barco, T.V.N. Cole, P-V. Daoust, A.G. Henry, D.F. McAlpine, W.A. McLellan, T. Wimmer, and A.R. Solow. 2013. Assessment of management to mitigate anthropogenic effects on large whales. Conservation Biology 27:121-133.

Vanderlaan A.S.M. and C.T. Taggart. 2007. Vessel collisions with whales: The probability of lethal injury based on vessel speed. Marine Mammal Science 23:144-156.

Vanderlaan, A.S.M., J.J. Corbett, S.L. Green, J.A. Callahan, C. Wang, R.D. Kenney, C.T.
Taggart, and J. Firestone. 2009. Probability and mitigation of vessel encounters with North Atlantic right whales. Endangered Species Research 6:273-285.

Van Waerebeek K. and R. Leaper. Second report of the IWC Vessel Strike Data Standardisation Working Group. SC/60/BC5 IWC. Santiago, Chile: International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee.

Wang, R.D. Kenney, C.T. Taggart, and J. Firestone. 2009. Probability and mitigation of vessel encounters with North Atlantic right whales. Endangered Species Research 6:273-285.

Wade, P. R. and R. Angliss. 1997. Guidelines for assessing marine mammal stocks: report of the GAMMS workshop April 3-5, 1996 Seattle, WA. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-OPR-12, 93p.

Wang, C., S.B. Lyons, J.J. Corbett, and J. Firestone. 2007. Using ship speed and mass to describe potential collision severity with whales: An application of ship traffic, energy and environment model (STEEM). Compendium of Papers: Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting.

Ward-Geiger, L.I., G.K. Silber, R.D. Baumstark, and T.L. Pulfer. 2005. Characterization of ship traffic in right whale critical habitat. Coastal Management. 33(3):263-278.

Waring G.T, E. Josephson, K. Maze-Foley, P.E. Rosel (eds). 2013. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2012. NOAA Tech Memo NMFS NE 223; 419 p. http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/nefsc/publications/

Wiley, D.N., M. Thompson, R.M. Pace III, and J. Levenson. 2011. Modeling speed restrictions to mitigate lethal collisions between ships and whales in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, USA. Biological Conservation 144:2377-2381.

Updated: December 6, 2013

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