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Candidate and Proposed Species Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Candidate species are any species that are undergoing a status review that we have announced in a Federal Register notice, whether or not they are the subject of a petition. For detailed definitions and explanations, please refer to the 2006 Candidate Species Definition (71 FR 61022, 10/17/2006).

Proposed species are those candidate species that were found to warrant listing as either threatened or endangered and were officially proposed as such in a Federal Register notice after the completion of a status review and consideration of other protective conservation measures. We always seek public comment on a proposal to list species under the ESA. We generally have one year after a species is proposed for listing under the ESA to make a final determination whether to list a species as threatened or endangered.

Candidates for Listing (12 candidate "species")

Species Year Federal Register notice
(Brosme brosme)
2007 72 FR 10710
ray, giant manta
(Manta birostris)
2016 81 FR 8874
ray, reef manta
(Manta alfredi)
seahorse, dwarf
(Hippocampus zosterae)
2012 77 FR 26478
shad, Alabama
(Alosa alabamae)
2013 78 FR 57611
shark, oceanic whitetip
(Carcharhinus longimanus)
2016 81 FR 1376
skate, thorny
(Amblyraja radiata)
2015 80 FR 65175
tuna, Pacific bluefin
(Thunnus orientalis)
2016 81 FR 70074
Marine Mammals
dolphin, Indo-Pacific Humpback (1 candidate subspecies)
(Sousa chinensis)
  • Taiwanese humpback dolphin
    (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis)
2016 81 FR 29515

seal, Pacific harbor (1 candidate DPS)
(Phoca vitulina richardii)

  • Iliamna Lake
2013 78 FR 29098

whale, Bryde's (1 candidate DPS)
(Balaenoptera edeni)

  • Gulf of Mexico
2015 80 FR 18343
Marine Invertebrates
nautilus, chambered
(Nautilus pompilius)
2016 81 FR 58895


Proposed for Listing (10 proposed "species")

Species Year Proposed Status

6 elasmobranch species

2015 proposed endangered
proposed threatened
guitarfish, blackchin
(Rhinobatos cemiculus)
2016 proposed threatened
guitarfish, common
(Rhinobatos, rhinobatos)
Marine Mammals

dolphin, Hector's (2 subspecies)
(Cephalorhynchus hectori)

  • Maui's dolphin
    (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui)
2016 proposed endangered
  • South Island Hector's dolphin
    (Cephalorhynchus hectori hectori)
proposed threatened


Endangered and Threatened Species Under NMFS' Jurisdiction:

Additional Species:

Updated: October 19, 2016