Southern Right Whale
Photo: Michaël CATANZARITI
Vaquita (Gulf of California harbor porpoise) photo taken under SEMARNAT permit (Oficio No. DR/488/08) within a natural protected area in Mexico.
Credit: Paula Olson (NOAA Contractor)
Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), we must list species as endangered or threatened regardless of where they are found. If a species occurs exclusively in foreign waters, we refer to it as a "foreign species." To date, there are 54 listed foreign species under NMFS jurisdiction.
How are foreign species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)?
The listing process for a foreign species is no different than the listing process for any other species under the ESA.
How are foreign species protected by the ESA?
Benefits of ESA protection to foreign species are primarily realized in the form of restrictions on trade and may include prohibitions on certain activities including import, export, take, commercial activity, interstate commerce, and foreign commerce.
In addition, listing under the ESA can also increase global awareness of the threats faced by the species, which may fuel conservation efforts for the species in its range countries.
Is critical habitat designated for foreign species?
No, we cannot designate critical habitat in foreign waters. We can only designate critical habitat in waters under U.S. jurisdiction.
Endangered and Threatened Foreign Species under NMFS' Jurisdiction
- dolphin, Chinese River / baiji (Lipotes vexillifer)
- dolphin, Indus River (Platanista minor)
- porpoise, Gulf of California harbor / vaquita / Cochito (Phocoena sinus)
- seal, bearded (Erignathus barbatus) - 1 DPS
- seal, Mediterranean monk (Monachus monachus)
- seal, ringed (Phoca hispida) - 4 subspecies
- seal, spotted (Phoca largha) - 1 DPS
- whale, gray (Eschrichtius robustus) - 1 DPS
- whale, humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) - 2 DPSs
- whale, Southern right (Eubalaena australis)
- turtle, green (Chelonia mydas) - 5 DPSs
- turtle, loggerhead (Caretta caretta) - 7 DPSs
Other Marine Reptiles
- sea snake, dusky (Aipysurus fuscus)
- angelshark, common (Squatina squatina)
- angelshark, sawback (Squatina aculeata)
- angelshark, smoothback (Squatina oculata)
- cardinalfish, Banggai (Pteropogon kauderni)
- coelacanth, African (Latimeria chalumnae) - 1 DPS
- sawfish, dwarf (Pristis clavata)
- sawfish, green (Pristis zijsron)
- sawfish, narrow (Anoxypristis cuspidata)
- sawfish, smalltooth (Pristis pectinata) - 1 DPS
- shark, scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) - 1 DPS
- sturgeon, Adriatic (Acipenser naccarii)
- sturgeon, Chinese (Acipenser sinensis)
- sturgeon, European (Acipenser sturio)
- sturgeon, Kaluga (Huso dauricus)
- sturgeon, Sakhalin (Acipenser mikadoi)
- totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi)
- Acropora lokani
- Acropora pharaonis
- Acropora rudis
- Acropora tenella
- Anacropora spinosa
- Cantharellus noumeae
- Montipora australiensis
- Pavona diffluens
- Porites napopora
- Siderastrea glynni
- Tubastraea floreana
Updated: September 6, 2016