Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas)
Photo: NMFS National Marine Mammal Laboratory
Beluga Whale Range Map
(click for larger view PDF)
Beluga Whale Critical Habitat
(Cook Inlet, AK)
(click for larger view PDF)
Did You Know?
· Petition to Designate the Sakhalin Bay-Amur River Stock of Beluga Whales as Depleted
ESA Endangered - Cook Inlet (Alaska)
MMPA Depleted - Cook Inlet (Alaska)*
MMPA - throughout its range
CITES Appendix II - throughout its range
* We found that a petition to designate the Sakhalin Bay-Amur River stock as depleted presented substantial information indicating that the depleted designation may be warranted.
|Weight:||average 3,150 lbs (1,430 kg)|
|Length:||average 13 feet (4 m), but may reach 16 feet (5 m)|
|Appearance:||small and white, lack a dorsal fin, typically do not "blow" at the surface when breathing|
|Diet:||opportunistic feeders, belugas eat octopus, squid, crabs, shrimp, clams, mussels, snails, sandworms, and fishes|
|Behavior:||extremely social animals that typically migrate, hunt, and interact together in groups of 10 to several hundred;
known as the "canaries of the sea," because they produce a vast repertoire of sounds including whistles, squeals, moos, chirps, and clicks
The beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is a small, white-toothed whale. Adult belugas may reach a length of 16 feet (5 m), though average size is 12-14 feet (about 4 m). Males may weigh about 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg) and females 3,000 pounds (1,360 kg). Beluga whales lack a dorsal fin and do not typically produce a visible "blow" when breathing at the surface.
Unlike other cetaceans, belugas can move their head up, down, and side to side, because their cervical vertebrae are not fused. This feature appears to be an adaptation to maneuvering and catching prey in muddy or ice-covered areas.
Beluga whales are covered with a thick layer of blubber that accounts for as much as 40 percent of their body mass. This fat provides thermal protection and stores energy. Belugas are unique among cetaceans in that they shed their outer layer of skin, or molt, each summer around July. They concentrate in shallow water where there is coarse gravel to rub against. The rubbing action helps remove the top layer of old yellow skin and reveal the new skin underneath.
Beluga whales mate in the spring, usually in March or April, in small bays and estuaries. Gestation lasts about 14-15 months, and calves are born between March and September, mostly between May and July. Females give birth to single calves (and on rare occasion twins) every two to three years on average. They give birth where the water is relatively warm (50-60° F or 10-15° C). Beluga calves nurse for at least 12 to 18 months, until their teeth emerge, at which point they supplement their diets with shrimp and small fishes. Most calves continue to nurse for another year after beginning to eat solid food. Female belugas are old enough to reproduce at around 4 to 7 years of age and males around 7 to 9 years. Their lifespan is thought to be about 35-50 years.
Belugas are extremely social animals that typically migrate, hunt, and interact together in groups of 10 to several hundred. They are known as the "canaries of the sea," because they produce a vast repertoire of sounds including whistles, squeals, moos, chirps, and clicks . They have a well-developed sense of hearing and echolocation, and are reported to have acute vision both in and out of water.
Belugas are opportunistic feeders, eating octopus, squid, crabs, shrimp, clams, mussels, snails, sandworms, and fishes, including eulachon, salmon, capelin, cod, herring, smelt, flounder, sole, sculpin, lamprey, and lingcod.
Beluga whales are generally found in shallow coastal waters, often in water barely deep enough to cover their bodies, but have also been seen in deep waters. They seem well adapted to both a cold ocean habitat and a warmer freshwater habitat. Belugas can be found swimming among icebergs and ice floes in the waters of the Arctic and subarctic, where water temperatures may be as low as 32° F (0° C). They can also be found in estuaries and river basins.
In April 2009, NMFS solicited public comments and information in an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (74 FR 17131 [pdf]) to designate critical habitat for Cook Inlet beluga whales. In December 2009, NMFS proposed critical habitat [pdf] for Cook Inlet beluga whales. In April 2011, NMFS designated critical habitat [pdf] in the Cook Inlet.
- North America
Specifically, they inhabit the Arctic Ocean and its adjoining seas, including the
- Sea of Okhotsk
- Bering Sea
- Gulf of Alaska
- Beaufort Sea
- Baffin Bay
- Hudson Bay
- Gulf of St. Lawrence
During certain times of the year, belugas may also be found in large rivers, such as the Yukon, as they seem to be unaffected by salinity changes.
- Cook Inlet
- Bristol Bay
- Eastern Bering Sea
- Eastern Chukchi Sea
- Beaufort Sea
Of those, the Cook Inlet is the only endangered population. It is the most isolated stock; genetic samples suggest these whales have been isolated for several thousand years. The Cook Inlet stock has been severely reduced in numbers over the last several decades. NMFS estimates this population numbered as many as 1,300 in the late 1970s. The current estimate is about 325 beluga whales in the Cook Inlet.
The other 4 stocks are considered stable or have not exhibited a decreasing trend in numbers. Population size estimates from the most recent Stock Assessment Reports are available on our website.
- harvest, for skin/leather
- Belugas are the only cetacean with skin thick enough to be used as leather when tanned
- legal subsistence harvest in the Cook Inlet
- Subsistence harvest is the only factor that can be identified as influencing the decline of the Cook Inlet population from 1994-1998, when 67 whales per year were harvested, prompting the "depleted" designation under the MMPA; the lack of recovery of the population was a factor that contributed to the endangered listing. Since 1999, the Cook Inlet beluga harvests have been limited to no more than 2 whales per year.
- The other 4 stocks have levels of subsistence harvest that do not threaten their survival
- For belugas in the Cook Inlet, increased development/ human activities in the Cook Inlet lead to potential threats, such as
- oil and gas production and transport
- indirect and direct adverse effects from commercial fishing gear (e.g., gillnets) and operations
- habitat destruction and alteration
- harassment due to increasing commerce and recreation in Cook Inlet
NMFS developed a Conservation Plan for the Cook Inlet beluga whales [pdf] that details many proposed and current conservation actions. The plan sets a goal of a minimum population of 780 animals before NMFS would no longer consider the Cook Inlet stock depleted. Achievement of this goal is expected to take until at least 2038. Management of the Alaskan Native subsistence fishery in Cook Inlet occured through a Cooperative Agreement between NMFS and the Cook Inlet Marine Mammal Council. (Note: CIMMC was disbanded by unanimous vote of the then CIMMC member Tribes' representatives on 6/20/2012.)
A co-management agreement is in place for the native subsistence fishery for the other 4 stocks of beluga whales. These groups set harvest limits and other requirements to ensure conservation of the species.
On March 3, 1999, NMFS received two petitions to list the Cook Inlet population of beluga whales as endangered under the ESA. The petitioners requested that we issue an emergency listing under section 4(b)(7) of the ESA, designate critical habitat for Cook Inlet beluga whales, and take immediate action to implement rulemaking to regulate the harvest of these whales.
In May 2000, NMFS designated Cook Inlet beluga whales as depleted under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. However, at that time, the agency determined that the Cook Inlet beluga whale population was not threatened or endangered under the ESA. But, because this stock did not show significant evidence of recovery thereafter, NMFS initiated a second Status Review in the spring of 2006.
In April 20, 2006, the Trustees for Alaska petitioned NMFS to list the Cook Inlet beluga whale as threatened or endangered under the ESA. NMFS evaluated the petition and conducted a status review.
In October 2008, NMFS determined that beluga whales in the Cook Inlet needed protection under the ESA, and, on October 22, 2008, listed the population as endangered.
In April 2009, NMFS solicited public comments and information in an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to designate critical habitat for Cook Inlet beluga whales. In December 2009, NMFS proposed critical habitat [pdf] for Cook Inlet beluga whales. In April 2011, NMFS designated critical habitat [pdf] in the Cook Inlet.
60-day Finding on Petition to Designate Sakhalin Bay-Amur River Beluga Whale Stock as Depleted under the Marine Mammal Protection Act
| 79 FR 44733
79 FR 28879
|Final Critical Habitat Designation for Cook Inlet Beluga Whales||76 FR 20180||04/11/2011|
||74 FR 63080||12/02/2009|
||74 FR 17131||04/14/2009|
Final Rule to List Cook Inlet Beluga Whale as Endangered
|73 FR 62919||10/22/2008|
|Conservation Plan for Cook Inlet Beluga Whale||n/a||10/2008|
|70 FR 12853||03/16/2005|
|Long-term Harvest Limits for Cook Inlet DPS||73 FR 60976||10/15/2008|
|2008 Status Review for Cook Inlet||n/a||04/2008|
|71 FR 14836||03/24/2006|
|6-Month Extension Regarding Petition to List the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale DPS Under the Endangered Species Act||73 FR 21578||04/22/2008|
|Proposed Endangered Status for the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale "Distinct Population Segment" (DPS)||72 FR 19854||04/20/2007|
|90-Day Finding for a Petition To List the Cook Inlet population as Endangered under the ESA||71 FR 44614||08/07/2006|
|Depleted Designation for Cook Inlet population||
|Stock Assessment Reports||n/a||various|
- NMFS Alaska Regional Office Beluga Whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska
- NMFS National Marine Mammal Laboratory Information about Beluga Whales
- NMFS Southwest Fisheries Science Center Beluga Whale Information
- NMFS Detailed Beluga Whale Fact Sheet [pdf]
- Marine Mammal Commission Beluga Whale Information
- Beluga Whale Sounds from Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS)
- Alaska Department of Fish and Game Beluga Whale Information
- Berzin A.A. and Vladimirov V.L. 1989. Sovremennoye raspredeleniye i chislennost kitoobraznikh v Okhotskom more (Present-day distribution and numbers of cetaceans in the Sea of Okhotsk). Biologiya moria, N 2, pp. 15-23. Cited in Melnikov (1999).
- Berzin A.A., Vladimirov V.L., and Doroshenko N.V. 1990. Aerial surveys to determine the distribution and number of polar grey whales and beluga whales in the Sea of Okhotsk in 1985-1989. News of the Pacific Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, V. 112. (Translated from Russian).
- Final Environmental Assessment for Issuance of Permit No. 17324 for importation of beluga whales for public display purposes; August 2013; pg. 12
- International Whaling Commission. 2000. Report of the Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans. Pp. 40-46. In: Report of the Scientific Committee. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 (Suppl.).
- Reeves, R.R., Brownell, R.L., Jr., Burkanov, V., Kingsley, M.C.S., Lowry, L.F., and Taylor, B.L. 2011. Sustainability assessment of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) live-capture removals in the Sakhalin-Amur Region, Okhotsk Sea, Russia. Report of an independent scientific review panel.Occasional Paper of the Species Survival Commission. No. 44. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 34 pp.
- Shpak, O. and Glazov, D. 2013. Review of the recent scientific data on the Okhotsk Sea white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population structure and its application to management. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. SC/65a/SM23. 19pp.
Updated: September 2, 2014