Skip to Page Content
banner top art gif
office title gif
NOAA Fisheries
Office of Protected Resources
Acropora palmata thicket on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. Andy Bruckner, 1996Coho salmon painting, Canadian Dept of Fisheries and OceansMonk seal, C.E. BowlbyHumpback whale, Dr. Lou Herman
banner art gif
Species
Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Pinnipeds
Marine Turtles
Marine & Anadromous Fish
Marine Invertebrates & Plants
Species of Concern
Threatened & Endangered Species
Critical Habitat Maps
  Contact OPR
Glossary
OPR Site Map

inner curve gif

Fraser's Dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei)

Status | Taxonomy | Species Description | Habitat | Distribution |
Population Trends | Threats | Conservation Efforts | Regulatory Overview |
Key Documents | More Info

  fraser's dolphin
Fraser's Dolphin
(Lagenodelphis hosei)
Photo: Robert Pitman, NOAA


 
fraser's dolphin
Fraser's Dolphin
(Lagenodelphis hosei)
Photo: Sophie Webb,
NMFS Southwest Fisheries Science Center


Status
MMPA - Fraser's dolphins, like all marine mammals, are protected under the MMPA.
CITES Appendix II - throughout its range

Taxonomy
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Cetacea
Family: Delphinidae
Genus: Lagenodelphis
Species: hosei

Species Description
Weight: 350-450 pounds (160-210 kg)
Length: 6-9 feet (2-2.7 m)
Appearance:  stocky body and a small distinct beak, small dorsal fin, smaller flippers and flukes than other dolphin species; distinct black or dark gray stripe that extends from their eye to their flipper
Lifespan: 18 years or more
Diet: deep sea species of mesopelagic fish, crustaceans (like shrimp), and cephalopods (like squid and octopus)
Behavior: usually found in large tight groups averaging between 10-100 individuals

Fraser's dolphins are members of the delphinid family. They are about 6-9 feet (2-2.7 m) long and weigh 350-450 pounds (160-210 kg). Males are generally slightly longer, weigh more, and have more distinct color patterns than females.

They have a stocky or chunky body with a postanal hump and a small distinct beak. The dorsal fin located midway down its back is small, slightly falcate, and triangular in shape. The flippers and flukes are small when compared to other dolphin species.

Fraser's dolphins are recognized by a distinct dark (usually black or gray) lateral flank stripe that extends from their eye to their flipper and anus and reminds some people of a "raccoon" or "bandit"-like mask. The stripe may vary based on geography and gender. The upper-part of the animal is a bluish or brownish gray and the underside is usually pale white or pink. The color pattern is generally duller and less striking in calves, but varies individually based on sex and age.

Fraser's dolphins are usually found in large tight groups averaging between 10-100 individuals, but have been occasionally seen in larger groups of up to 1,000 or more animals. They are sometimes seen in mixed schools associated with other cetacean "blackfish" species such as false killer whales, melon-headed whales, Risso's dolphins, and short-finned pilot whales (Shirihai and Jarrett 2006). Terns (a type of seabird) are sometimes associated with these animals when feeding at the surface.

Their swimming behavior is often described as low-angled, aggressive, and splashy, creating a distinctive frothy wake. Groups of individuals sometimes form long bunched lateral "chorus" lines. Depending on the geographical area, Fraser's dolphins can be timid and elusive, or approachable and gregarious when interacting with vessels.

Fraser's dolphins are capable of diving up to almost 2000 feet (600 m) to feed on deep sea species of mesopelagic fish (e.g., myctophids), crustaceans (e.g., shrimp), and cephalopods (e.g., squid and octopus). They have 20-44 pairs of small conical teeth in each jaw that are useful for grasping their prey.

They become sexually mature and begin breeding between 5-10 years of age (females at 5-8 years, males at 7-10 years). After a gestation period of 10-12.5 months, females give birth to a single 3.3 feet (1 m) long calf every 2 years usually between spring and autumn. Their estimated lifespan may be 18 years or more.

 
Fraser's dolphin range map
Fraser's Dolphin Range Map
(click for larger view PDF)


Habitat
Fraser's dolphins occur in warm temperate, subtropical and tropical pelagic waters usually deeper than 3,300 feet (1000 m) worldwide. They are often associated with areas of upwelling.

Distribution
Fraser's dolphins have a cosmopolitan distribution from 30° South to 30° North, and live in deep, tropical waters. They can occur in areas near coastlines where the continental shelf is narrow. Stranded Fraser's dolphins have been reported outside their typical range in southern Australia, France, western Scotland, and Uruguay (Shirihai and Jarrett 2006).

  fraser's dolphins jumping in and out of the water
Fraser's Dolphin
(Lagenodelphis hosei)
Photo: NMFS Southwest Fisheries Science Center


Population Trends
For management purposes, Fraser's dolphins inhabiting U.S. waters have been divided into three stocks: the Hawaiian Stock, the Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock, and the Western North Atlantic Stock. The Hawaiian stock is estimated between about 8,000 and 19,000, while the population in the northern Gulf of Mexico is estimated between 400-700 animals. The population size in the western North Atlantic is unknown due to insufficient data available on current population trends. In the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, scientists estimate there are at least 100,000-289,000 animals. The worldwide population of Fraser's dolphins is unknown and for the most part not considered very abundant.

Threats

  • incidentally "taken" as bycatch in fisheries operating in pelagic waters such as driftnets, gillnets, and trap nets. Specifically, Fraser's dolphins have been incidentally captured in tuna purse seine fisheries in the eastern tropical Pacific and the Philippines.
  • directly targeted and killed by fisheries in Indonesia, Japan, the Lesser Antilles, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka for meat and oil (Jefferson et. al. 2008)

Conservation Efforts
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species This link is an external site. considers Fraser's dolphins as "Data Deficient" due to insufficient information on population status and trends.

Regulatory Overview
This species is protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 as amended.

Key Documents
(All documents are in PDF format.)

Title Federal Register Date
Stock Assessment Reports n/a various

More Information

References:

  • Jefferson, T. A, M. A. Webber, and R. L. Pitman. (2008). Marine Mammals of the World, A Comprehensive Guide to their Identification. Amsterdam, Elsevier. p. 253-256.
  • Shirihai, H. and B. Jarrett (2006). Whales, Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton, Princeton University Press. p.197-198.

Updated: December 12, 2012

NOAA logo Department of Commerce logo