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Killer Whale: Further Reading

Angliss, R.P., and R.B. Outlaw. 2006. Alaska marine mammal stock assessments, 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-161, Department of Commerce, NOAA/NMFS. 250 pp.

Asper, E.D., G.W. Young and M.T. Walsh. 1988. Observations on the birth and development of a captive-born killer whale. International Zoo Yearbook 27:295-304.

Baird R.W. 1988. Foraging and feeding behavior of transient killer whales. Whalewatcher. Spring 1988: 11-15.

Baird R.W. 1994. Foraging behaviour and ecology of transient killer whales (Orcinus orca ). Ph.D. Thesis. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.

Baird, R.W. 2000. The killer whale - foraging specializations and group hunting. Pp 127-153. In: J. Mann, R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack and H. Whitehead (eds.), Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Baird, R.W. 2001. Status of killer whales, Orcinus orca, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115:676-701.

Baird, R.W., and L.M. Dill. 1996. Ecological and social determinants of mammal-eating killer whales: group stability and dispersal patterns. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:2096-2105.

Baird, R.W., and P.J. Stacey. 1988. Variation in saddle patch pigmentation in populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) from British Columbia, Alaska, and Washington State. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:2582-2585.

Baird, R.W., and H. Whitehead. 2000. Social organization of mammal-eating killer whales: group stability and dispersal patterns. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:2096-2105.

Balcomb, K.C., and C.A. Goebel. 1976. A killer whale study in Puget Sound. Final Report, Contract No. NASO-6-35330. Marine Mammal Division, NMFS, Seattle, Washington. 11 pp.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. 2000. Population structure and mating pattern of killer whales as revealed by DNA analysis. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., and G.M. Ellis. 2001. Population structure and genetic variability in northeastern Pacific killer whales: towards an assessment of population viability. Research Document 2001/065, Fisheries and Ocean Canada, Nanaimo, British Columbia.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., J.K.B. Ford and K.A. Heise. 1996. The mixed blessing of echolocation: differences in sonar use by fish-eating and mammal-eating killer whales. Animal Behaviour 51:553-565.

BBC News. 2006. Canada 's lonely killer whale dies. 11 March, 2006.

Berzin, A.A., and V.L. Vladimirov. 1983. A new species of killer whale (Cetacea, Delphinidae) from Antarctic waters. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 62:287-295.

Bigg, M.A., G.M. Ellis, J.K.B. Ford and K.C. Balcomb. 1987. Killer whales: a study of their identification, genealogy and natural history in British Columbia and Washington State. Phantom Press and Publishers, Nanaimo, British Columbia.

Bigler, B.S., D.W. Welch and J.H. Helle. 1996. A review of size trends among North Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53:455-465.

Black, N.A., A. Schulman-Janiger, R.L. Ternullo and M. Guerrero-Ruiz. 1997. Killer whales of California and western Mexico: a catalog of photo-identified individuals. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-247, U.S. Department of Commerce, San Diego, California.

Braham, H.W., and M.E. Dahlheim. 1982. Killer whales in Alaska documented in the platforms of opportunity program. Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:643-646.

Burdin, A.M., E. Hoyt, H. Sato, K. Tarasyan and O.A. Filatova. 2004. Resident and transient-type killer whales, Orcinus orca, in southeast Kamchatka, Russia. IWC Report. SC/56/SM15. 3 pp.

Carretta, J.V., K.A. Forney, M.M. Muto, J. Barlow, J. Baker, B. Hanson and M.S. Lowry. 2006. U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments: 2005. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA/NMFS Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-388, 317 pp.

Clark, S.T., and D.K. Odell. 1999. Allometric relationships and sexual dimorphism in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Journal of Mammalogy 80:777-785.

Condy, P.R., R.J. van Aarde and M.N. Bester. 1978. The seasonal occurrence of killer whales Orcinus orca, at Marion Island. Journal of Zoology (London ) 184:449-464.

Dahlheim, M.E., and J.E. Heyning. 1999. Killer whale Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758). Pp 281-322. In: S. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds.). Handbook of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Dahlheim, M.E., S. Leatherwood and W.F. Perrin. 1982. Distribution of killer whales in the warm temperate and tropical eastern Pacific. Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:647-653.

Duffield, D.A., D.K. Odell, J.F. McBain and B. Andrews. 1995. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) reproductions at Sea World. Zoo Biology 14:417-430.

Fiscus, C.H., and K. Niggol. 1965. Observations of cetacean off California, Oregon and Washington. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 27 pp.

Ford, J.K.B. 1989. Acoustic behavior of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) off Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:727-745.

Ford, J.K.B. 1991. Vocal traditions among resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal waters of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:727-745.

Ford, J.K.B. 2002. Killer whale Orcinus orca. Pp 669-676. In: W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J.G.M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Ford, J.K.B., and G.M. Ellis. 1999. Transients: mammal-hunting killer whales of British Columbia, Washington, and southeastern Alaska. UBC Press, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Ford, J.K.B., and G.M. Ellis. 2006. Selective foraging by fish-eating killer whales Orcinus orca in British Columbia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 316:185-199.

Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis, L.G. Barrett-Lennard, A.B. Morton, R.S. Palm and K.C. Balcomb III. 1998. Dietary specialization in two sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1456-1471.

Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis and K.C. Balcomb. 2000. Killer whales: the natural history and genealogy of Orcinus orca in British Columbia and Washington State. 2nd ed. UBC Press, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis, D.R. Matkin, K.C. Balcomb, D. Briggs and A.B. Morton. 2005. Killer whale attacks on minke whales: prey capture and antipredator tactics. Marine Mammal Science 21(4):603-618.

Forney, K.A., and P. Wade. 2006. Worldwide distribution and abundance of killer whales. In: J.A. Estes, R.L. Brownell, Jr., D.P. DeMaster, D.F. Doak and T.M. Williams (eds.). Whales, Whaling and Ocean Ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. In Press.

Gill, P.C., and D. Thiele. 1997. A winter sighting of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Antarctic sea ice. Polar Biology 17:401-404.

Gilmore, R. 1976. Killer whales in the San Diego area, Del Mar to the Coronado Islands. American Cetacean Society Newsletter. San Diego, California. 2 pp.

Goley, P.D., and J.M. Straley. 1994. Attack on gray whales in Monterey Bay, California, by killer whales previously identified in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:1528-1530.

Guinet, C. 1992. Compotement de chasse des orques (Orcinus orca) autour des iles Crozet. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:1656-1667.

Guinet, C. and J. Bouvier. 1995. Development of intentional stranding hunting techniques in killer whale (Orcinus orca) calves at Crozet Archipelago. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73:27-33.

Haenel, N.J. 1986. General notes on the behavioral ontogeny of Puget Sound killer whales and the occurrence of allomaternal behavior. Pp 285-300. In: B.C. Kirkevold and J.S. Lockard (eds.) Behavioral Biology of Killer Whales. Alan R. Liss. New York, New York.

Herman, D.P., D.G. Burrows, P.R. Wade, J.W. Durban, C.O. Matkin, R.G. Leduc, L.G. Barrett-Lennard and M.M. Krahn. 2005. Feeding ecology of eastern North Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca, from fatty acid, stable isotope, and organochlorine analyses of blubber biopsies. Marine Ecology Progress Series 302:275-291.

Heise, K., L.G. Barrett-Lennard, E. Saulitis, C. Matkin and D. Bain. 2003. Examining the evidence for killer whale on Steller sea lions in British Columbia and Alaska. Aquatic Mammals 29:325-334.

Heyning, J.E., and M.E. Dahlheim. 1988. Orcinus orca. Mammalian Species No. 304. American Society of Mammalogists. 9 pp.

Hoelzel, A.R. 1991. Killer whale predation on marine mammals at Punta Norte, Argentina ; food sharing, provisioning and foraging strategy.

Hoelzel, A.R. 1993. Foraging behaviour and social group dynamics in Puget Sound killer whales. Animal Behaviour 45:581-591.

Hoelzel, A.R., and G.A. Dover. 1991. Genetic differentiation between sympatric killer whale populations. Heredity 66:191-195.

Hoelzel, A.R., M. Dahlheim and S.J. Stern. 1998. Low genetic variation among killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the eastern North Pacific and genetic differentiation between foraging specialists. Journal of Heredity 89:121-128.

Hoelzel, A.R., A. Natoli, M.E. Dahlheim, C. Olavarria, R.W. Baird and N.A. Black. 2002. Low worldwide genetic diversity in the killer whale (Orcinus orca): implications for demographic history. Proceedings of the royal Society of London, Biological Sciences, Series B 269:1467-1473.

Hoyt, E. 1990. Orca: The Whale Called Killer. Camden House Publishing, North York, Ontario. 292 pp.

Jefferson, T.A., P.J. Stacey and R.W. Baird. 1991. A review of killer whale interactions with other marine mammals: predation to co-existence. Mammal Review 21:151-180.

Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. FAO Species Identification Guide: Marine Mammals of the World. United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 320 pp.

Jehl, J.R., Jr., W.E. Evans, F.T. Awbrey and W.S. Drieschmann. 1980. Distribution and geographic variation in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations of the Antarctic and adjacent waters. Antarctic Journal of the United States 15:161-163.

Kasamatsu, F., and T. Miyashita. 1991. Field Guide of Whales and Dolphins. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, Japan. 148 pp.

Kastelein, R.A., J. Kershaw, E. Berghout and P.R. Wiepkema. 2003. Food consumption and suckling in killer whales Orcinus orca at Marine land Antibes. International Zoo Yearbook 38:204-218.

Kasuya, T. 1971. Consideration of distribution and migration of toothed whales off the Pacific coast of Japan based upon aerial sighting record. Scientific Report of Whales Research Institute 23:37-60.

Krahn, M.M., M.J. Ford, W.F. Perrin, P.R. Wade, R.P. Angliss, M.B. Hanson, B.L. Taylor, G.M. Ylitalo, M.E. Dahlheim, J.E. Stein, and R.S. Waples. 2004. 2004 status review of southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) under the Endangered Species Act. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-62, U.S. Department of Commerce, Seattle, Washington.

Leatherwood, S., R.R. Reeves, W.F. Perrin and W.E. Evans. 1988. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters - A Guide to Their Identification. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, New York. 245 pp.

LeDuc, R.G., R.L. Pitman, L. Robert and K.M. Robertson. 2005. Mitochondrial differentiation among Antarctic killer whales. 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, 12 - 16 December 2005, San Diego, California.

Lopez, J.C., and D. Lopez. 1985. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) of Patagonia, and their behavior of intentional stranding while hunting nearshore. Journal of Mammalogy 66:181-183.

Matkin, C.O., and E. Saulitis. 1997. Killer whale Orcinus orca. Restoration Notebook. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Anchorage, Alaska. 12 pp.

Matkin, C.O., L. Barrett-Lennard and G. Ellis. 2001. Killer whales and predation on Steller sea lions. Pp. 61-66. In:Steller Sea Lion Decline: Is It Food II. D. DeMaster and S. Atkinson (eds.). Alaska Sea Grant College Program, AK-SG-02-02. Fairbanks, Alaska. 80 pp.

Mikhalev, Yu.A., M.V. Ivashin, V.P. Savusin and F.E. Zelenaya. 1981. The distribution and biology of killer whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Report of the International Whaling Commission 31:551-566.

Morin PA, Archer FI, Foote AD, Vilstrup J, Allen EE, Wade P, Durban J, Parsons K, Pitman R, Li L, Bouffard P, Nielsen SA, Rasmussen M, Willerslev E, Gilbert MTP, Harkins T, in press. Complete mitochondrial genome phylogeographic analysis of killer whales (Orcinus orca) indicates multiple species. Genome Research.

Murie, O.J. 1959. Fauna of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 406 pp.

NMFS. 2003. Status Review of the AT1 Group of killer whales from the Prince William Sound and Kenai Fjords area. 25 pp.

NMFS. 2005. Proposed Conservation Plan for Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Region, Seattle, Washington. 183 pp.

Norris, K.S., and J.H. Prescott. 1961. Observations of Pacific cetaceans of Californian and Mexican waters. University of California Publications in Zoology 63:291-402.

Nottestad, L. and B.E. Axelsen. 1999. Herring schooling manoeuvres in response to killer whale attacks. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1540-1546.

Nottestad, L., A. Fernö and B.E. Axelsen. 2002. Digging in the deep: killer whales' advanced hunting tactic. Polar Biology 25:939-941.

Olesiuk, P.F., M.A. Bigg and G.M. Ellis. 1990. Life history and population dynamics of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington States. Report of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 12:209-243.

Perrin, W.F., and S.B. Reilly. 1984. Reproductive parameters of dolphins and small whales of the family Delphinidae. Report of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 6:97-134.

Pitman, R.L., and P. Ensor. 2003. Three forms of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Antarctic waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5:131-139.

Pitman, R.L., W.L. Perryman, D. LeRoi and E.M. Eilers. 2005. Get shorty: A dwarf form of killer whale confirmed in Antarctica. 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, 12 - 16 December 2005, San Diego, California.

Reeves, R.R., and E. Mitchell. 1988. Killer whale sightings and takes by American pelagic whalers in the North Atlantic. Rit Fiskideildar 11:7-23.

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Ross, P.S. 2006. Fireproof killer whales (Orcinus orca): flame-retardant chemicals and the conservation imperative in the charismatic icon of British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 63:224-234.

Ross, P.S., G.M. Ellis, M.G. Ikonomou, L.G. Barrett-Lennard and R.F. Addison. 2000. High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca: Effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:504-515.

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Visser, I.N. 1999a. Antarctic orca in New Zealand waters? New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33:515-520.

Visser, I.N. 1999b. Benthic foraging on stingrays by killer whales (Orcinus orca) in New Zealand waters. Marine Mammal Science 15:220-227.

Visser, I.N. 1999c. Propeller scars on and known home range of two orca (Orcinus orca) in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33:635-642.

Visser, I.N. 2005. First observations of feeding on thresher (Alopias vulpinus) and hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena) sharks by killer whales (Orcinus orca), which specialise on Elasmobranchs as prey. Aquatic Mammals 31:83-88.

Visser, I.N., and P. Mäkeläinen, 2000. Variation in eye-patch shape of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in New Zealand waters. Marine Mammal Science 26:232-240.

Visser, I.N., J. Berghan, R. van Meurs and D. Fertl. 2000. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) predation on a shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in New Zealand waters. Aquatic Mammals 26:229-234.

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