Magnuson-Stevens
Fishery Conservation and Management Act

Public Law 94-265

As amended through October 11, 1996

AN ACT

To provide for the conservation and management of the fisheries,

and for other purposes.

J.Feder version (12/19/96)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sec. 2. Findings, purposes, and policy.

Sec. 3. Definitions.

Sec. 4. Authorization of Appropriations.

TITLE I -- UNITED STATES RIGHTS AND AUTHORITY REGARDING FISH AND FISHERY RESOURCES

Sec. 101. United States sovereign rights to fish and fishery management authority.

Sec. 102. Highly migratory species.

TITLE II -- FOREIGN FISHING AND INTERNATIONAL FISHERY AGREEMENTS

Sec. 201. Foreign fishing.

Sec. 202. International fishery agreements.

Sec. 203. Congressional oversight of international fishery agreements.

Sec. 204. Permits for foreign fishing.

Sec. 205. Import prohibitions.

Sec. 206. Large-scale driftnet fishing.

Sec. 206a. Denial of port privileges and sanctions for high seas large-scale driftnet fishing.

TITLE III -- NATIONAL FISHERY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

Sec. 301. National standards for fishery conservation and management.

Sec. 302. Regional fishery management councils.

Sec. 303. Contents of fishery management plans.

Sec. 304. Action by Secretary.

Sec. 305. Other requirements and authority.

Sec. 306. State jurisdiction.

Sec. 307. Prohibited acts.

Sec. 308. Civil penalties and permit sanctions.

Sec. 309. Criminal offenses.

Sec. 310. Civil forfeitures.

Sec. 311. Enforcement.

Sec. 312. Transition to sustainable fisheries.

Sec. 313. North Pacific fisheries conservation.

Sec. 314. Northwest Atlantic Ocean fisheries reinvestment program.

TITLE IV -- FISHERY MONITORING AND RESEARCH

Sec. 401. Registration and information management.

Sec. 402. Information collection.

Sec. 403. Observers.

Sec. 404. Fisheries research.

Sec. 405. Incidental harvest research.

Sec. 406. Fisheries systems research.

Sec. 407. Gulf of Mexico red snapper research.

Appendix

Numbers in boldface indicate the number of the Public Law that amended the following provision. Boldface comments marked with asterisks were inserted by the editors.

*Bracketed material with an asterisk is text that is added, or replaces underlined language, and will be effective on the date the Agreement between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Maritime Boundary enters into force for the United States. See P.L. 102-251

SEC. 2. FINDINGS, PURPOSES, AND POLICY 16 U.S.C. 1801

(a) FINDINGS.--The Congress finds and declares the following:

(1) The fish off the coasts of the United States, the highly migratory species of the high seas, the species which dwell on or in the Continental Shelf appertaining to the United States, and the anadromous species which spawn in United States rivers or estuaries, constitute valuable and renewable natural resources. These fishery resources contribute to the food supply, economy, and health of the Nation and provide recreational opportunities.

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(2) Certain stocks of fish have declined to the point where their survival is threatened, and other stocks of fish have been so substantially reduced in number that they could become similarly threatened as a consequence of (A) increased fishing pressure, (B) the inadequacy of fishery resource conservation and management practices and controls, or (C) direct and indirect habitat losses which have resulted in a diminished capacity to support existing fishing levels.

(3) Commercial and recreational fishing constitutes a major source of employment and contributes significantly to the economy of the Nation. Many coastal areas are dependent upon fishing and related activities, and their economies have been badly damaged by the overfishing of fishery resources at an ever-increasing rate over the past decade. The activities of massive foreign fishing fleets in waters adjacent to such coastal areas have contributed to such damage, interfered with domestic fishing efforts, and caused destruction of the fishing gear of United States fishermen.

(4) International fishery agreements have not been effective in preventing or terminating the overfishing of these valuable fishery resources. There is danger that irreversible effects from overfishing will take place before an effective international agreement on fishery management jurisdiction can be negotiated, signed, ratified, and implemented.

(5) Fishery resources are finite but renewable. If placed under sound management before overfishing has caused irreversible effects, the fisheries can be conserved and maintained so as to provide optimum yields on a continuing basis.

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(6) A national program for the conservation and management of the fishery resources of the United States is necessary to prevent overfishing, to rebuild overfished stocks, to insure conservation, to facilitate long-term protection of essential fish habitats, and to realize the full potential of the Nation's fishery resources.

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(7) A national program for the development of fisheries which are underutilized or not utilized by the United States fishing industry, including bottom fish off Alaska, is necessary to assure that our citizens benefit from the employment, food supply, and revenue which could be generated thereby.

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(8) The collection of reliable data is essential to the effective conservation, management, and scientific understanding of the fishery resources of the United States.

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(9) One of the greatest long-term threats to the viability of commercial and recreational fisheries is the continuing loss of marine, estuarine, and other aquatic habitats. Habitat considerations should receive increased attention for the conservation and management of fishery resources of the United States.

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(10) Pacific Insular Areas contain unique historical, cultural, legal, political, and geographical circumstances which make fisheries resources important in sustaining their economic growth.

(b) PURPOSES.--It is therefore declared to be the purposes of the Congress in this Act--

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(1) to take immediate action to conserve and manage the fishery resources found off the coasts of the United States, and the anadromous species and Continental Shelf fishery resources of the United States, by exercising (A) sovereign rights for the purposes of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing all fish within the exclusive economic zone established by Presidential Proclamation 5030, dated March 10, 1983, and (B) exclusive fishery management authority beyond the exclusive economic zone over such anadromous species and Continental Shelf fishery resources[, and fishery resources in the special areas]*;

(2) to support and encourage the implementation and enforcement of international fishery agreements for the conservation and management of highly migratory species, and to encourage the negotiation and implementation of additional such agreements as necessary;

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(3) to promote domestic commercial and recreational fishing under sound conservation and management principles, including the promotion of catch and release programs in recreational fishing;

(4) to provide for the preparation and implementation, in accordance with national standards, of fishery management plans which will achieve and maintain, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield from each fishery;

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(5) to establish Regional Fishery Management Councils to exercise sound judgment in the stewardship of fishery resources through the preparation, monitoring, and revision of such plans under circumstances (A) which will enable the States, the fishing industry, consumer and environmental organizations, and other interested persons to participate in, and advise on, the establishment and administration of such plans, and (B) which take into account the social and economic needs of the States;

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(6) to encourage the development by the United States fishing industry of fisheries which are currently underutilized or not utilized by United States fishermen, including bottom fish off Alaska, and to that end, to ensure that optimum yield determinations promote such development in a non-wasteful manner; and

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(7) to promote the protection of essential fish habitat in the review of projects conducted under Federal permits, licenses, or other authorities that affect or have the potential to affect such habitat.

(c) POLICY.--It is further declared to be the policy of the Congress in this Act--

(1) to maintain without change the existing territorial or other ocean jurisdiction of the United States for all purposes other than the conservation and management of fishery resources, as provided for in this Act;

(2) to authorize no impediment to, or interference with, recognized legitimate uses of the high seas, except as necessary for the conservation and management of fishery resources, as provided for in this Act;

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(3) to assure that the national fishery conservation and management program utilizes, and is based upon, the best scientific information available; involves, and is responsive to the needs of, interested and affected States and citizens; considers efficiency; draws upon Federal, State, and academic capabilities in carrying out research, administration, management, and enforcement; considers the effects of fishing on immature fish and encourages development of practical measures that minimize bycatch and avoid unnecessary waste of fish; and is workable and effective;

(4) to permit foreign fishing consistent with the provisions of this Act;

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(5) to support and encourage active United States efforts to obtain internationally acceptable agreements which provide for effective conservation and management of fishery resources, and to secure agreements to regulate fishing by vessels or persons beyond the exclusive economic zones of any nation;

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(6) to foster and maintain the diversity of fisheries in the United States; and

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(7) to ensure that the fishery resources adjacent to a Pacific Insular Area, including resident or migratory stocks within the exclusive economic zone adjacent to such areas, be explored, developed, conserved, and managed for the benefit of the people of such area and of the United States.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS 16 U.S.C. 1802

As used in this Act, unless the context otherwise requires--

(1) The term "anadromous species" means species of fish which spawn in fresh or estuarine waters of the United States and which migrate to ocean waters.

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(2) The term "bycatch" means fish which are harvested in a fishery, but which are not sold or kept for personal use, and includes economic discards and regulatory discards. Such term does not include fish released alive under a recreational catch and release fishery management program.

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(3) The term "charter fishing" means fishing from a vessel carrying a passenger for hire (as defined in section 2101(21a) of title 46, United States Code) who is engaged in recreational fishing.

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(4) The term "commercial fishing" means fishing in which the fish harvested, either in whole or in part, are intended to enter commerce or enter commerce through sale, barter or trade.

(5) The term "conservation and management" refers to all of the rules, regulations, conditions, methods, and other measures (A) which are required to rebuild, restore, or maintain, and which are useful in rebuilding, restoring, or maintaining, any fishery resource and the marine environment; and (B) which are designed to assure that--

(i) a supply of food and other products may be taken, and that recreational benefits may be obtained, on a continuing basis;

(ii) irreversible or long-term adverse effects on fishery resources and the marine environment are avoided; and

(iii) there will be a multiplicity of options available with respect to future uses of these resources.

(6) The term "Continental Shelf" means the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas adjacent to the coast, but outside the area of the territorial sea, of the United States, to a depth of 200 meters or, beyond that limit, to where the depth of the superjacent waters admits of the exploitation of the natural resources of such areas.

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(7) The term "Continental Shelf fishery resources" means the following:

CNIDARIA

Bamboo Coral--Acanella spp.;

Black Coral--Antipathes spp.;

Gold Coral--Callogorgia spp.;

Precious Red Coral--Corallium spp.;

Bamboo Coral--Keratoisis spp.; and

Gold Coral--Parazoanthus spp.

CRUSTACEA

Tanner Crab--Chionoecetes tanneri;

Tanner Crab--Chionoecetes opilio;

Tanner Crab--Chionoecetes angulatus;

Tanner Crab--Chionoecetes bairdi;

King Crab--Paralithodes camtschatica;

King Crab--Paralithodes platypus;

King Crab--Paralithodes brevipes;

Lobster--Homarus americanus;

Dungeness Crab--Cancer magister;

California King Crab--Paralithodes californiensis;

California King Crab--Paralithodes rathbuni;

Golden King Crab--Lithodes aequispinus;

Northern Stone Crab--Lithodes maja;

Stone Crab--Menippe mercenaria; and

Deep-sea Red Crab--Chaceon quinquedens.

MOLLUSKS

Red Abalone--Haliotis rufescens;

Pink Abalone--Haliotis corrugata;

Japanese Abalone--Haliotis kamtschatkana;

Queen Conch--Strombus gigas;

Surf Clam--Spisula solidissima; and

Ocean Quahog--Arctica islandica.

SPONGES

Glove Sponge--Spongia cheiris;

Sheepswool Sponge--Hippiospongia lachne;

Grass Sponge--Spongia graminea; and

Yellow Sponge--Spongia barbera.

If the Secretary determines, after consultation with the Secretary of State, that living organisms of any other sedentary species are, at the harvestable stage, either--

(A) immobile on or under the seabed, or

(B) unable to move except in constant physical contact with the seabed or subsoil, of the Continental Shelf which appertains to the United States, and publishes notices of such determination in the Federal Register, such sedentary species shall be considered to be added to the foregoing list and included in such term for purposes of this Act.

(8) The term "Council" means any Regional Fishery Management Council established under section 302.

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(9) The term "economic discards" means fish which are the target of a fishery, but which are not retained because they are of an undesirable size, sex, or quality, or for other economic reasons.

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(10) The term "essential fish habitat" means those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity.

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(11) The term "exclusive economic zone" means the zone established by Proclamation Numbered 5030, dated March 10, 1983. For purposes of applying this Act, the inner boundary of that zone is a line coterminous with the seaward boundary of each of the coastal States.

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(12) The term "fish" means finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life other than marine mammals and birds.

(13) The term "fishery" means--

(A) one or more stocks of fish which can be treated as a unit for purposes of conservation and management and which are identified on the basis of geographical, scientific, technical, recreational, and economic characteristics; and

(B) any fishing for such stocks.

(14) The term "fishery resource" means any fishery, any stock of fish, any species of fish, and any habitat of fish.

(15) The term "fishing" means--

(A) the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish;

(B) the attempted catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; (C) any other activity which can reasonably be expected to result in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; or

(D) any operations at sea in support of, or in preparation for, any activity described in subparagraphs (A) through (C).

Such term does not include any scientific research activity which is conducted by a scientific research vessel.

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(16) The term "fishing community" means a community which is substantially dependent on or substantially engaged in the harvest or processing of fishery resources to meet social and economic needs, and includes fishing vessel owners, operators, and crew and United States fish processors that are based in such community.

(17) The term "fishing vessel" means any vessel, boat, ship, or other craft which is used for, equipped to be used for, or of a type which is normally used for--

(A) fishing; or

(B) aiding or assisting one or more vessels at sea in the performance of any activity relating to fishing, including, but not limited to, preparation, supply, storage, refrigeration, transportation, or processing.

(18) The term "foreign fishing" means fishing by a vessel other than a vessel of the United States.

(19) The term "high seas" means all waters beyond the territorial sea of the United States and beyond any foreign nation's territorial sea, to the extent that such sea is recognized by the United States.

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(20) The term "highly migratory species" means tuna species, marlin (Tetrapturus spp. and Makaira spp.), oceanic sharks, sailfishes (Istiophorus spp.), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius).

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(21) The term "individual fishing quota" means a Federal permit under a limited access system to harvest a quantity of fish, expressed by a unit or units representing a percentage of the total allowable catch of a fishery that may be received or held for exclusive use by a person. Such term does not include community development quotas as described in section 305(i).

(22) The term "international fishery agreement" means any bilateral or multilateral treaty, convention, or agreement which relates to fishing and to which the United States is a party.

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(23) The term "large-scale driftnet fishing" means a method of fishing in which a gillnet composed of a panel or panels of webbing, or a series of such gillnets, with a total length of two and one-half kilometers or more is placed in the water and allowed to drift with the currents and winds for the purpose of entangling fish in the webbing.

(24) The term "Marine Fisheries Commission" means the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, or the Pacific Marine Fisheries Commission.

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(25) The term "migratory range" means the maximum area at a given time of the year within which fish of an anadromous species or stock thereof can be expected to be found, as determined on the basis of scale pattern analysis, tagging studies, or other reliable scientific information, except that the term does not include any part of such area which is in the waters of a foreign nation.

(26) The term "national standards" means the national standards for fishery conservation and management set forth in section 301.

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(27) The term "observer" means any person required or authorized to be carried on a vessel for conservation and management purposes by regulations or permits under this Act.

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(28) The term "optimum", with respect to the yield from a fishery, means the amount of fish which--

(A) will provide the greatest overall benefit to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and recreational opportunities, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems;

(B) is prescribed as such on the basis of the maximum sustainable yield from the fishery, as reduced by any relevant economic, social, or ecological factor; and

(C) in the case of an overfished fishery, provides for rebuilding to a level consistent with producing the maximum sustainable yield in such fishery.

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(29) The terms "overfishing" and "overfished" mean a rate or level of fishing mortality that jeopardizes the capacity of a fishery to produce the maximum sustainable yield on a continuing basis.

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(30) The term "Pacific Insular Area" means American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Island, Wake Island, or Palmyra Atoll, as applicable, and includes all islands and reefs appurtenant to such island, reef, or atoll.

(31) The term "person" means any individual (whether or not a citizen or national of the United States), any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity (whether or not organized or existing under the laws of any State), and any Federal, State, local, or foreign government or any entity of any such government.

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(32) The term "recreational fishing" means fishing for sport or pleasure.

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(33) The term "regulatory discards" means fish harvested in a fishery which fishermen are required by regulation to discard whenever caught, or are required by regulation to retain but not sell.

(34) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Commerce or his designee.

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(35) The term "special areas" means the areas referred to as eastern special areas in Article 3(1) of the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Maritime Boundary, signed June 1, 1990. In particular, the term refers to those areas east of the maritime boundary, as defined in that Agreement, that lie within 200 nautical miles of the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of Russia is measured but beyond 200 nautical miles of the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of the United States is measured.[1]

(36) The term "State" means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

(37) The term "stock of fish" means a species, subspecies, geographical grouping, or other category of fish capable of management as a unit.

(38) The term "treaty" means any international fishery agreement which is a treaty within the meaning of section 2 of article II of the Constitution.

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(39) The term "tuna species" means the following:

Albacore Tuna--Thunnus alalunga;

Bigeye Tuna--Thunnus obesus;

Bluefin Tuna--Thunnus thynnus;

Skipjack Tuna--Katsuwonus pelamis; and

Yellowfin Tuna--Thunnus albacares.

(40) The term "United States", when used in a geographical context, means all the States thereof.

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(41) The term "United States fish processors" means facilities located within the United States for, and vessels of the United States used or equipped for, the processing of fish for commercial use or consumption.

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(42) The term "United States harvested fish" means fish caught, taken, or harvested by vessels of the United States within any fishery regulated under this Act.

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(43) The term "vessel of the United States" means--

(A) any vessel documented under chapter 121 of title 46, United States Code;

(B) any vessel numbered in accordance with chapter 123 of title 46, United States Code, and measuring less than 5 net tons;

(C) any vessel numbered in accordance with chapter 123 of title 46, United States Code, and used exclusively for pleasure; or

(D) any vessel not equipped with propulsion machinery of any kind and used exclusively for pleasure.

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(44) The term "vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States" has the same meaning such term has in section 3(c) of the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1903(c)).

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(45) The term "waters of a foreign nation" means any part of the territorial sea or exclusive economic zone (or the equivalent) of a foreign nation, to the extent such territorial sea or exclusive economic zone is recognized by the United States.

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SEC. 4. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS 16 U.S.C. 1803

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of this Act, not to exceed the following sums:

(1) $147,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(2) $151,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

(3) $155,000,000 for fiscal year 1998; and

(4) $159,000,000 for fiscal year 1999.

TITLE I -- UNITED STATES RIGHTS AND AUTHORITY REGARDING

FISH AND FISHERY RESOURCES

SEC. 101. UNITED STATES SOVEREIGN RIGHTS TO 16 U.S.C. 1811

FISH AND FISHERY MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY

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(a) IN THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE.--Except as provided in section 102, the United States claims, and will exercise in the manner provided for in this Act, sovereign rights and exclusive fishery management authority over all fish, and all Continental Shelf fishery resources, within the exclusive economic zone [and special areas]*.

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(b) BEYOND THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE.--The United States claims, and will exercise in the manner provided for in this Act, exclusive fishery management authority over the following:

(1) All anadromous species throughout the migratory range of each such species beyond the exclusive economic zone; except that that management authority does not extend to any such species during the time they are found within any waters of a foreign nation.

(2) All Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond the exclusive economic zone.

[(3) All fishery resources in the special areas.]*

SEC. 102. HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES 16 U.S.C. 1812

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The United States shall cooperate directly or through appropriate international organizations with those nations involved in fisheries for highly migratory species with a view to ensuring conservation and shall promote the achievement of optimum yield of such species throughout their range, both within and beyond the exclusive economic zone.

TITLE II -- FOREIGN FISHING AND INTERNATIONAL FISHERY AGREEMENTS

SEC. 201. FOREIGN FISHING 16 U.S.C. 1821

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(a) IN GENERAL.--After February 28, 1977, no foreign fishing is authorized within the exclusive economic zone, [within the special areas,]* or for anadromous species or Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond the exclusive economic zone [such zone or areas]*, unless such foreign fishing--

(1) is authorized under subsections (b) or (c) or section 204(e), or under a permit issued under section 204(d);

(2) is not prohibited by subsection (f); and

(3) is conducted under, and in accordance with, a valid and applicable permit issued pursuant to section 204.

(b) EXISTING INTERNATIONAL FISHERY AGREEMENTS.--Foreign fishing described in subsection (a) may be conducted pursuant to an international fishery agreement (subject to the provisions of section 202(b) or (c)), if such agreement--

(1) was in effect on the date of enactment of this Act; and

(2) has not expired, been renegotiated, or otherwise ceased to be of force and effect with respect to the United States.

(c) GOVERNING INTERNATIONAL FISHERY AGREEMENTS.--Foreign fishing described in subsection (a) may be conducted pursuant to an international fishery agreement (other than a treaty) which meets the requirements of this subsection if such agreement becomes effective after application of section 203. Any such international fishery agreement shall hereafter in this Act be referred to as a "governing international fishery agreement". Each governing international fishery agreement shall acknowledge the exclusive fishery management authority of the United States, as set forth in this Act. It is the sense of the Congress that each such agreement shall include a binding commitment, on the part of such foreign nation and its fishing vessels, to comply with the following terms and conditions:

(1) The foreign nation, and the owner or operator of any fishing vessel fishing pursuant to such agreement, will abide by all regulations promulgated by the Secretary pursuant to this Act, including any regulations promulgated to implement any applicable fishery management plan or any preliminary fishery management plan.

97-453, 104-297 (2) The foreign nation, and the owner or operator of any fishing vessel fishing pursuant to such agreement, will abide by the requirement that--

(A) any officer authorized to enforce the provisions of this Act (as provided for in section 311) be permitted--

(i) to board, and search or inspect, any such vessel at any time,

(ii) to make arrests and seizures provided for in section 311(b) whenever such officer has reasonable cause to believe, as a result of such a search or inspection, that any such vessel or any person has committed an act prohibited by section 307, and

(iii) to examine and make notations on the permit issued pursuant to section 204 for such vessel;

(B) the permit issued for any such vessel pursuant to section 204 be prominently displayed in the wheelhouse of such vessel;

(C) transponders, or such other appropriate position-fixing and identification equipment as the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating determines to be appropriate, be installed and maintained in working order on each such vessel;

(D) United States observers required under subsection (h) be permitted to be stationed aboard any such vessel and that all of the costs incurred incident to such stationing, including the costs of data editing and entry and observer monitoring, be paid for, in accordance with such subsection, by the owner or operator of the vessel;

(E) any fees required under section 204(b)(10) be paid in advance;

(F) agents be appointed and maintained within the United States who are authorized to receive and respond to any legal process issued in the United States with respect to such owner or operator; and

(G) responsibility be assumed, in accordance with any requirements prescribed by the Secretary, for the reimbursement of United States citizens for any loss of, or damage to, their fishing vessels, fishing gear, or catch which is caused by any fishing vessel of that nation;

and will abide by any other monitoring, compliance, or enforcement requirement related to fishery conservation and management which is included in such agreement.

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(3) The foreign nation and the owners or operators of all of the fishing vessels of such nation shall not, in any year, harvest an amount of fish which exceeds such nation's allocation of the total allowable level of foreign fishing, as determined under subsection (e).

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(4) The foreign nation will-- (A) apply, pursuant to section 204, for any required permits;

(B) deliver promptly to the owner or operator of the appropriate fishing vessel any permit which is issued under that section for such vessel;

(C) abide by, and take appropriate steps under its own laws to assure that all such owners and operators comply with, section 204(a) and the applicable conditions and restrictions established under section 204(b)(7); and

(D) take, or refrain from taking, as appropriate, actions of the kind referred to in subsection (e)(1) in order to receive favorable allocations under such subsection.

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(d) TOTAL ALLOWABLE LEVEL OF FOREIGN FISHING.--The total allowable level of foreign fishing, if any, with respect to any fishery subject to the exclusive fishery management authority of the United States, shall be that portion of the optimum yield of such fishery which will not be harvested by vessels of the United States, as determined in accordance with this Act.

(e) ALLOCATION OF ALLOWABLE LEVEL.--

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(B) From the determinations made under subparagraph (A), the Secretary of State shall compute the aggregate of all of the fishery allocations made to each foreign nation.

(C) The Secretary of State shall initially release to each foreign nation for harvesting up to 50 percent of the allocations aggregate computed for such nation under subparagraph (B), and such release of allocation shall be apportioned by the Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, among the individual fishery allocations determined for that nation under subparagraph (A). The basis on which each apportionment is made under this subparagraph shall be stated in writing by the Secretary of State.

(D) After the initial release of fishery allocations under subparagraph (C) to a foreign nation, any subsequent release of an allocation for any fishery to such nation shall only be made--

(i) after the lapse of such period of time as may be sufficient for purposes of making the determination required under clause (ii); and

(ii) if the Secretary of State and the Secretary, after taking into account the size of the allocation for such fishery and the length and timing of the fishing season, determine in writing that such nation is complying with the purposes and intent of this paragraph with respect to such fishery.

If the foreign nation is not determined under clause (ii) to be in such compliance, the Secretary of State shall reduce, in a manner and quantity he considers to be appropriate (I) the remainder of such allocation, or (II) if all of such allocation has been released, the next allocation of such fishery, if any, made to such nation.

(E) The determinations required to be made under subparagraphs (A) and (D)(ii), and the apportionments required to be made under subparagraph (C), with respect to a foreign nation shall be based on--

(i) whether, and to what extent, such nation imposes tariff barriers or nontariff barriers on the importation, or otherwise restricts the market access, of both United States fish and fishery products, particularly fish and fishery products for which the foreign nation has requested an allocation;

(ii) whether, and to what extent, such nation is cooperating with the United States in both the advancement of existing and new opportunities for fisheries exports from the United States through the purchase of fishery products from United States processors, and the advancement of fisheries trade through the purchase of fish and fishery products from United States fishermen, particularly fish and fishery products for which the foreign nation has requested an allocation;

(iii) whether, and to what extent, such nation and the fishing fleets of such nation have cooperated with the United States in the enforcement of United States fishing regulations;

(iv) whether, and to what extent, such nation requires the fish harvested from the exclusive economic zone [or special areas]* for its domestic consumption;

(v) whether, and to what extent, such nation otherwise contributes to, or fosters the growth of, a sound and economic United States fishing industry, including minimizing gear conflicts with fishing operations of United States fishermen, and transferring harvesting or processing technology which will benefit the United States fishing industry;

(vi) whether, and to what extent, the fishing vessels of such nation have traditionally engaged in fishing in such fishery;

(vii) whether, and to what extent, such nation is cooperating with the United States in, and making substantial contributions to, fishery research and the identification of fishery resources; and

(viii) such other matters as the Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, deems appropriate.

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(2) (A) For the purposes of this paragraph--

(i) The term "certification" means a certification made by the Secretary that nationals of a foreign country, directly or indirectly, are conducting fishing operations or engaging in trade or taking which diminishes the effectiveness of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. A certification under this section shall also be deemed a certification for the purposes of section 8(a) of the Fishermen's Protective Act of 1967 (22 U.S.C. 1978(a)).

(ii) The term "remedial period" means the 365-day period beginning on the date on which a certification is issued with respect to a foreign country.

(B) If the Secretary issues a certification with respect to any foreign country, then each allocation under paragraph (1) that--

(i) is in effect for that foreign country on the date of issuance; or

(ii) is not in effect on such date but would, without regard to this paragraph, be made to the foreign country within the remedial period;

shall be reduced by the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary, by not less than 50 percent.

(C) The following apply for purposes of administering subparagraph (B) with respect to any foreign country:

(i) If on the date of certification, the foreign country has harvested a portion, but not all, of the quantity of fish specified under any allocation, the reduction under subparagraph (B) for that allocation shall be applied with respect to the quantity not harvested as of such date.

(ii) If the Secretary notified the Secretary of State that it is not likely that the certification of the foreign country will be terminated under section 8(d) of the Fishermen's Protective Act of 1967 before the close of the period for which an allocation is applicable or before the close of the remedial period (whichever close first occurs) the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary, shall reallocate any portion of any reduction made under subparagraph (B) among one or more foreign countries for which no certification is in effect.

(iii) If the certification is terminated under such section 8(d) during the remedial period, the Secretary of State shall return to the foreign country that portion of any allocation reduced under subparagraph (B) that was not reallocated under clause (ii); unless the harvesting of the fish covered by the allocation is otherwise prohibited under this Act.

(iv) The Secretary may refund or credit, by reason of reduction of any allocation under this paragraph, any fee paid under section 204.

(D) If the certification of a foreign country is not terminated under section 8(d) of the Fishermen's Protective Act of 1967 before the close of the last day of the remedial period, the Secretary of State--

(i) with respect to any allocation made to that country and in effect (as reduced under subparagraph (B)) on such last day, shall rescind, effective on and after the day after such last day, any unharvested portion of such allocation; and

(ii) may not thereafter make any allocation to that country under paragraph (1) until the certification is terminated.

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(f) RECIPROCITY.--Foreign fishing shall not be authorized for the fishing vessels of any foreign nation unless such nation satisfies the Secretary and the Secretary of State that such nation extends substantially the same fishing privileges to fishing vessels of the United States, if any, as the United States extends to foreign fishing vessels.

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(g) PRELIMINARY FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLANS.--The Secretary, when notified by the Secretary of State that any foreign nation has submitted an application under section 204(b), shall prepare a preliminary fishery management plan for any fishery covered by such application if the Secretary determines that no fishery management plan for that fishery will be prepared and implemented, pursuant to title III, before March 1, 1977. To the extent practicable, each such plan--

(1) shall contain a preliminary description of the fishery and a preliminary determination as to--

(A) the optimum yield from such fishery;

(B) when appropriate, the capacity and extent to which United States fish processors will process that portion of such optimum yield that will be harvested by vessels of the United States; and

(C) the total allowable level of foreign fishing with respect to such fishery;

(2) shall require each foreign fishing vessel engaged or wishing to engage in such fishery to obtain a permit from the Secretary;

(3) shall require the submission of pertinent data to the Secretary, with respect to such fishery, as described in section 303(a)(5); and

(4) may, to the extent necessary to prevent irreversible effects from overfishing, with respect to such fishery, contain conservation and management measures applicable to foreign fishing which--

(A) are determined to be necessary and appropriate for the conservation and management of such fishery,

(B) are consistent with the national standards, the other provisions of this Act, and other applicable law, and

(C) are described in section 303(b)(2), (3), (4), (5), and (7).

Each preliminary fishery management plan shall be in effect with respect to foreign fishing for which permits have been issued until a fishery management plan is prepared and implemented, pursuant to title III, with respect to such fishery. The Secretary may, in accordance with section 553 of title 5, United States Code, also prepare and promulgate interim regulations with respect to any such preliminary plan. Such regulations shall be in effect until regulations implementing the applicable fishery management plan are promulgated pursuant to section 305.

(h) FULL OBSERVER COVERAGE PROGRAM.--

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(1) (A) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall establish a program under which a United States observer will be stationed aboard each foreign fishing vessel while that vessel is engaged in fishing within the exclusive economic zone [or special areas]*.

(B) The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe minimum health and safety standards that shall be maintained aboard each foreign fishing vessel with regard to the facilities provided for the quartering of, and the carrying out of observer functions by, United States observers.

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(2) The requirement in paragraph (1) that a United States observer be placed aboard each foreign fishing vessel may be waived by the Secretary if he finds that--

(A) in a situation where a fleet of harvesting vessels transfers its catch taken within the exclusive economic zone [or special areas]* to another vessel, aboard which is a United States observer, the stationing of United States observers on only a portion of the harvesting vessel fleet will provide a representative sampling of the by-catch of the fleet that is sufficient for purposes of determining whether the requirements of the applicable management plans for the by-catch species are being complied with;

(B) in a situation where the foreign fishing vessel is operating under a Pacific Insular Area fishing agreement, the Governor of the applicable Pacific Insular Area, in consultation with the Western Pacific Council, has established an observer coverage program that is at least equal in effectiveness to the program established by the Secretary;

(C) the time during which a foreign fishing vessel will engage in fishing within the exclusive economic zone [or special areas]* will be of such short duration that the placing of a United States observer aboard the vessel would be impractical; or

(D) for reasons beyond the control of the Secretary, an observer is not available.

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(3) Observers, while stationed aboard foreign fishing vessels, shall carry out such scientific, compliance monitoring, and other functions as the Secretary deems necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act; and shall cooperate in carrying out such other scientific programs relating to the conservation and management of living resources as the Secretary deems appropriate.

(4) In addition to any fee imposed under section 204(b)(10) of this Act and section 10(e) of the Fishermen's Protective Act of 1967 (22 U.S.C. 1980(e)) with respect to foreign fishing for any year after 1980, the Secretary shall impose, with respect to each foreign fishing vessel for which a permit is issued under such section 204, a surcharge in an amount sufficient to cover all the costs of providing a United States observer aboard that vessel. The failure to pay any surcharge imposed under this paragraph shall be treated by the Secretary as a failure to pay the permit fee for such vessel under section 204(b)(10). All surcharges collected by the Secretary under this paragraph shall be deposited in the Foreign Fishing Observer Fund established by paragraph (5).

(5) There is established in the Treasury of the United States the Foreign Fishing Observer Fund. The Fund shall be available to the Secretary as a revolving fund for the purpose of carrying out this subsection. The Fund shall consist of the surcharges deposited into it as required under paragraph (4). All payments made by the Secretary to carry out this subsection shall be paid from the Fund, only to the extent and in the amounts provided for in advance in appropriation Acts. Sums in the Fund which are not currently needed for the purposes of this subsection shall be kept on deposit or invested in obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States.

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(6) If at any time the requirement set forth in paragraph (1) cannot be met because of insufficient appropriations, the Secretary shall, in implementing a supplementary observer program:

(A) certify as observers, for the purposes of this subsection, individuals who are citizens or nationals of the United States and who have the requisite education or experience to carry out the functions referred to in paragraph (3);

(B) establish standards of conduct for certified observers equivalent to those applicable to Federal personnel;

(C) establish a reasonable schedule of fees that certified observers or their agents shall be paid by the owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels for observer services; and

(D) monitor the performance of observers to ensure that it meets the purposes of this Act.

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(i) RECREATIONAL FISHING.--Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, foreign fishing vessels which are not operated for profit may engage in recreational fishing within the exclusive economic zone, [special areas,]* and the waters within the boundaries of a State subject to obtaining such permits, paying such reasonable fees, and complying with such conditions and restrictions as the Secretary and the Governor of the State (or his designee) shall impose as being necessary or appropriate to insure that the fishing activity of such foreign vessels within such zone, [areas,]* or waters, respectively, is consistent with all applicable Federal and State laws and any applicable fishery management plan implemented under section 304. The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating in formulating the conditions and restrictions to be applied by the Secretary under the authority of this subsection.

SEC. 202. INTERNATIONAL FISHERY AGREEMENTS 16 U.S.C. 1822

(a) NEGOTIATIONS.--The Secretary of State--

(1) shall renegotiate treaties as provided for in subsection (b);

(2) shall negotiate governing international fishery agreements described in section 201(c);

(3) may negotiate boundary agreements as provided for in subsection (d);

(4) shall, upon the request of and in cooperation with the Secretary, initiate and conduct negotiations for the purpose of entering into international fishery agreements--

(A) which allow fishing vessels of the United States equitable access to fish over which foreign nations assert exclusive fishery management authority, and

(B) which provide for the conservation and management of anadromous species and highly migratory species; and

(5) may enter into such other negotiations, not prohibited by subsection (c), as may be necessary and appropriate to further the purposes, policy, and provisions of this Act.

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(b) TREATY RENEGOTIATION.--The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, shall initiate, promptly after the date of enactment of this Act, the renegotiation of any treaty which pertains to fishing within the exclusive economic zone (or within the area that will constitute such zone after February 28, 1977) [or special areas]*, or for anadromous species or Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond such zone or area[s]*, and which is in any manner inconsistent with the purposes, policy, or provisions of this Act, in order to conform such treaty to such purposes, policy, and provisions. It is the sense of Congress that the United States shall withdraw from any such treaty, in accordance with its provisions, if such treaty is not so renegotiated within a reasonable period of time after such date of enactment.

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(c) INTERNATIONAL FISHERY AGREEMENTS.--No international fishery agreement (other than a treaty) which pertains to foreign fishing within the exclusive economic zone (or within the area that will constitute such zone after February 28, 1977) [or special areas,]* or for anadromous species or Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond such zone or area[s]*--

(1) which is in effect on June 1, 1976, may thereafter be renewed, extended, or amended; or

(2) may be entered into after May 31, 1976;

by the United States unless it is in accordance with the provisions of section 201(c) or section 204(e).

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(d) BOUNDARY NEGOTIATIONS.--The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, may initiate and conduct negotiations with any adjacent or opposite foreign nation to establish the boundaries of the exclusive economic zone of the United States in relation to any such nation.

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(e) HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES AGREEMENTS.--

(1) EVALUATION.--The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, shall evaluate the effectiveness of each existing international fishery agreement which pertains to fishing for highly migratory species. Such evaluation shall consider whether the agreement provides for--

(A) the collection and analysis of necessary information for effectively managing the fishery, including but not limited to information about the number of vessels involved, the type and quantity of fishing gear used, the species of fish involved and their location, the catch and bycatch levels in the fishery, and the present and probable future condition of any stock of fish involved;

(B) the establishment of measures applicable to the fishery which are necessary and appropriate for the conservation and management of the fishery resource involved;

(C) equitable arrangements which provide fishing vessels of the United States with (i) access to the highly migratory species that are the subject of the agreement and (ii) a portion of the allowable catch that reflects the traditional participation by such vessels in the fishery;

(D) effective enforcement of conservation and management measures and access arrangements throughout the area of jurisdiction; and

(E) sufficient and dependable funding to implement the provisions of the agreement, based on reasonable assessments of the benefits derived by participating nations.

(2) ACCESS NEGOTIATIONS.--The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, shall initiate negotiations with respect to obtaining access for vessels of the United States fishing for tuna species within the exclusive economic zones of other nations on reasonable terms and conditions.

(3) REPORTS.--The Secretary of State shall report to the Congress--

(A) within 12 months after the date of enactment of this subsection, on the results of the evaluation required under paragraph (1), together with recommendations for addressing any inadequacies identified; and

(B) within six months after such date of enactment, on the results of the access negotiations required under paragraph (2).

(4) NEGOTIATION.--The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary, shall undertake such negotiations with respect to international fishery agreements on highly migratory species as are necessary to correct inadequacies identified as a result of the evaluation conducted under paragraph (1).

(5) SOUTH PACIFIC TUNA TREATY.--It is the sense of the Congress that the United States Government shall, at the earliest opportunity, begin negotiations for the purpose of extending the Treaty on Fisheries Between the Governments of Certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of America, signed at Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, April 2, 1987, and it[s] Annexes, Schedules, and implementing agreements for an additional term of 10 years on terms and conditions at least as favorable to vessels of the United States and the United States Government.

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(f) NONRECOGNITION.--It is the sense of the Congress that the United States Government shall not recognize the claim of any foreign nation to an exclusive economic zone (or the equivalent) beyond such nation's territorial sea, to the extent that such sea is recognized by the United States, if such nation--

(1) fails to consider and take into account traditional fishing activity of fishing vessels of the United States;

(2) fails to recognize and accept that highly migratory species are to be managed by applicable international fishery agreements, whether or not such nation is a party to any such agreement; or

(3) imposes on fishing vessels of the United States any conditions or restrictions which are unrelated to fishery conservation and management.

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(g) FISHERY AGREEMENT WITH UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS.--

(1) The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary, is authorized to negotiate and conclude a fishery agreement with Russia of a duration of no more than 3 years, pursuant to which--

(A) Russia will give United States fishing vessels the opportunity to conduct traditional fisheries within the waters claimed by the United States prior to the conclusion of the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Maritime Boundary, signed June 1, 1990, west of the maritime boundary, including the western special area described in Article 3(2) of the Agreement;

(B) the United States will give fishing vessels of Russia the opportunity to conduct traditional fisheries within waters claimed by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics prior to the conclusion of the Agreement referred to in subparagraph (A), east of the maritime boundary, including the eastern special areas described in Article 3(1) of the Agreement;

(C) catch data shall be made available to the government of the country exercising fisheries jurisdiction over the waters in which the catch occurred; and

(D) each country shall have the right to place observers on board vessels of the other country and to board and inspect such vessels.

(2) Vessels operating under a fishery agreement negotiated and concluded pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be subject to regulations and permit requirements of the country in whose waters the fisheries are conducted only to the extent such regulations and permit requirements are specified in that agreement.

(3) The Secretary of Commerce may promulgate such regulations, in accordance with section 553 of title 5, United States Code, as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of any fishery agreement negotiated and concluded pursuant to paragraph (1).

104-297

(h) BYCATCH REDUCTION AGREEMENTS.--

(1) The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, shall seek to secure an international agreement to establish standards and measures for bycatch reduction that are comparable to the standards and measures applicable to United States fishermen for such purposes in any fishery regulated pursuant to this Act for which the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State, determines that such an international agreement is necessary and appropriate.

(2) An international agreement negotiated under this subsection shall be--

(A) consistent with the policies and purposes of this Act; and

(B) subject to approval by Congress under section 203.

(3) Not later than January 1, 1997, and annually thereafter, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives a report describing actions taken under this subsection.

SEC. 203. CONGRESSIONAL OVERSIGHT OF 16 U.S.C. 1823

INTERNATIONAL FISHERY AGREEMENTS

104-297

(a) IN GENERAL.--No governing international fishery agreement, bycatch reduction agreement, or Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement shall become effective with respect to the United States before the close of the first 120 calendar days (excluding any days in a period for which the Congress is adjourned sine die) after the date on which the President transmits to the House of Representatives and to the Senate a document setting forth the text of such governing international fishery agreement, bycatch reduction agreement, or Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement. A copy of the document shall be delivered to each House of Congress on the same day and shall be delivered to the Clerk of the House of Representatives, if the House is not in session, and to the Secretary of the Senate, if the Senate is not in session.

(b) REFERRAL TO COMMITTEES.--Any document described in subsection (a) shall be immediately referred in the House of Representatives to the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, and in the Senate to the Committees on Commerce and Foreign Relations.

(c) CONGRESSIONAL PROCEDURES.--

(1) RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND SENATE.-- The provisions of this section are enacted by the Congress--

(A) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively, and they are deemed a part of the rules of each House, respectively, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in that House in the case of fishery agreement resolutions described in paragraph (2), and they supersede other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and

(B) with full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (so far as they relate to the procedure of that House) at any time, and in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of that House.

104-297

(2) DEFINITION.--For purposes of this subsection, the term "fishery agreement resolution" refers to a joint resolution of either House of Congress--

(A) the effect of which is to prohibit the entering into force and effect of any governing international fishery agreement, bycatch reduction agreement, or Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement the text of which is transmitted to the Congress pursuant to subsection (a); and

(B) which is reported from the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of the House of Representatives or the Committee on Commerce or the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, not later than 45 days after the date on which the document described in subsection (a) relating to that agreement is transmitted to the Congress.

(3) PLACEMENT ON CALENDAR.--Any fishery agreement resolution upon being reported shall immediately be placed on the appropriate calendar.

(4) FLOOR CONSIDERATION IN THE HOUSE.--

(A) A motion in the House of Representatives to proceed to the consideration of any fishery agreement resolution shall be highly privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.

(B) Debate in the House of Representatives on any fishery agreement resolution shall be limited to not more than 10 hours, which shall be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing the resolution. A motion further to limit debate shall not be debatable. It shall not be in order to move to recommit any fishery agreement resolution or to move to reconsider the vote by which any fishery agreement resolution is agreed to or disagreed to.

(C) Motions to postpone, made in the House of Representatives with respect to the consideration of any fishery agreement resolution, and motions to proceed to the consideration of other business, shall be decided without debate.

(D) All appeals from the decisions of the Chair relating to the application of the Rules of the House of Representatives to the procedure relating to any fishery agreement resolution shall be decided without debate.

(E) Except to the extent specifically provided in the preceding provisions of this subsection, consideration of any fishery agreement resolution shall be governed by the Rules of the House of Representatives applicable to other bills and resolutions in similar circumstances.

(5) FLOOR CONSIDERATION IN THE SENATE.--

(A) A motion in the Senate to proceed to the consideration of any fishery agreement resolution shall be privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.

(B) Debate in the Senate on any fishery agreement resolution and on all debatable motions and appeals in connection therewith shall be limited to not more than 10 hours. The time shall be equally divided between, and controlled by, the majority leader and the minority leader or their designees.

(C) Debate in the Senate on any debatable motion or appeal in connection with any fishery agreement resolution shall be limited to not more than 1 hour, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the mover of the motion or appeal and the manager of the resolution, except that if the manager of the resolution is in favor of any such motion or appeal, the time in opposition thereto shall be controlled by the minority leader or his designee. The majority leader and the minority leader, or either of them, may allot additional time to any Senator during the consideration of any debatable motion or appeal, from time under their control with respect to the applicable fishery agreement resolution.

(D) A motion in the Senate to further limit debate is not debatable. A motion to recommit any fishery agreement resolution is not in order.

SEC. 204. PERMITS FOR FOREIGN FISHING 16 U.S.C. 1824

99-659, 102-251

(a) IN GENERAL.--After February 28, 1977, no foreign fishing vessel shall engage in fishing within the exclusive economic zone [or special areas]*, or for anadromous species or Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond such zone or area[s]*, unless such vessel has on board a valid permit issued under this section for such vessel.

(b) APPLICATIONS AND PERMITS UNDER GOVERNING INTERNATIONAL FISHERY AGREEMENTS.--

99-659

(1) ELIGIBILITY.--Each foreign nation with which the United States has entered into a governing international fishery agreement shall submit an application to the Secretary of State each year for a permit for each of its fishing vessels that wishes to engage in fishing described in subsection (a). No permit issued under this section may be valid for longer than a year; and section 558(c) of title 5, United States Code, does not apply to the renewal of any such permit.

(2) FORMS.--The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, shall prescribe the forms for permit applications submitted under this subsection and for permits issued pursuant to any such application.

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(3) CONTENTS.--Any application made under this subsection shall specify--

(A) the name and official number or other identification of each fishing vessel for which a permit is sought, together with the name and address of the owner thereof;

(B) the tonnage, hold capacity, speed, processing equipment, type and quantity of fishing gear, and such other pertinent information with respect to characteristics of each such vessel as the Secretary may require;

(C) each fishery in which each such vessel wishes to fish;

(D) the estimated amount of tonnage of fish which will be caught, taken, or harvested in each such fishery by each such vessel during the time the permit is in force;

(E) the amount or tonnage of United States harvested fish, if any, which each such vessel proposes to receive at sea from vessels of the United States;

(F) the ocean area in which, and the season or period during which, such fishing will be conducted; and

(G) all applicable vessel safety standards imposed by the foreign country, and shall include written certification that the vessel is in compliance with those standards;

and shall include any other pertinent information and material which the Secretary may require.

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(4) TRANSMITTAL FOR ACTION.--Upon receipt of any application which complies with the requirements of paragraph (3), the Secretary of State shall publish a notice of receipt of the application in the Federal Register. Any such notice shall summarize the contents of the applications from each nation included therein with respect to the matters described in paragraph (3). The Secretary of State shall promptly transmit--

(A) such application, together with his comments and recommendations thereon, to the Secretary;

(B) a copy of the application to the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating; and

(C) a copy or a summary of the application to the appropriate Council.

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(5) ACTION BY COUNCIL.--After receiving a copy or summary of an application under paragraph (4)(C), the Council may prepare and submit to the Secretary such written comments on the application as it deems appropriate. Such comments shall be submitted within 45 days after the date on which the application is received by the Council and may include recommendations with respect to approval of the application and, if approval is recommended, with respect to appropriate conditions and restrictions thereon. Any interested person may submit comments to such Council with respect to any such application. The Council shall consider any such comments in formulating its submission to the Secretary.

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(6) APPROVAL.--

(A) After receipt of any application transmitted under paragraph (4)(A), the Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of State and, with respect to enforcement, with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. The Secretary, after taking into consideration the views and recommendations of such Secretaries, and any comments submitted by any Council under paragraph (5), may approve, subject to subparagraph (B), the application, if he determines that the fishing described in the application will meet the requirements of this Act, or he may disapprove all or any portion of the application.

(B) (i) In the case of any application which specifies that one or more foreign fishing vessels propose to receive at sea United States harvested fish from vessels of the United States, the Secretary may approve the application unless the Secretary determines, on the basis of the views, recommendations, and comments referred to in subparagraph (A) and other pertinent information, that United States fish processors have adequate capacity, and will utilize such capacity, to process all United States harvested fish from the fishery concerned.

(ii) The amount or tonnage of United States harvested fish which may be received at sea during any year by foreign fishing vessels under permits approved under this paragraph may not exceed that portion of the optimum yield of the fishery concerned which will not be utilized by United States fish processors.

(iii) In deciding whether to approve any application under this subparagraph, the Secretary may take into account, with respect to the foreign nation concerned, such other matters as the Secretary deems appropriate.

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(7) ESTABLISHMENT OF CONDITIONS AND RESTRICTIONS.--The Secretary shall establish conditions and restrictions which shall be included in each permit issued pursuant to any application approved under paragraph (6) or subsection (d) and which must be complied with by the owner or operator of the fishing vessel for which the permit is issued. Such conditions and restrictions shall include the following:

(A) All of the requirements of any applicable fishery management plan, or preliminary fishery management plan, and any applicable Federal or State fishing regulations.

(B) The requirement that no permit may be used by any vessel other than the fishing vessel for which it is issued.

(C) The requirements described in section 201(c)(1), (2), and (3).

(D) If the permit is issued other than pursuant to an application approved under paragraph (6)(B) or subsection (d), the restriction that the foreign fishing vessel may not receive at sea United States harvested fish from vessels of the United States.

(E) If the permit is issued pursuant to an application approved under paragraph (6)(B), the maximum amount or tonnage of United States harvested fish which may be received at sea from vessels of the United States.

(F) Any other condition and restriction related to fishery conservation and management which the Secretary prescribes as necessary and appropriate.

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(8) NOTICE OF APPROVAL.--The Secretary shall promptly transmit a copy of each application approved under paragraph (6) and the conditions and restrictions established under paragraph (7) to--

(A) the Secretary of State for transmittal to the foreign nation involved;

(B) the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating; and

(C) any Council which has authority over any fishery specified in such application.

(9) DISAPPROVAL OF APPLICATIONS.--If the Secretary does not approve any application submitted by a foreign nation under this subsection, he shall promptly inform the Secretary of State of the disapproval and his reasons therefore. The Secretary of State shall notify such foreign nation of the disapproval and the reasons therefor. Such foreign nation, after taking into consideration the reasons for disapproval, may submit a revised application under this subsection.

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(10) FEES.--

(A) Fees shall be paid to the Secretary by the owner or operator of any foreign fishing vessel for which a permit has been issued pursuant to this section. The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall establish a schedule of reasonable fees that shall apply nondiscriminatorily to each foreign nation.

(B) Amounts collected by the Secretary under this paragraph shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury.

(11) ISSUANCE OF PERMITS.--If a foreign nation notifies the Secretary of State of its acceptance of the conditions and restrictions established by the Secretary under paragraph (7), the Secretary of State shall promptly transmit such notification to the Secretary. Upon payment of the applicable fees established pursuant to paragraph (10), the Secretary shall thereupon issue to such foreign nation, through the Secretary of State, permits for the appropriate fishing vessels of that nation. Each permit shall contain a statement of all conditions and restrictions established under paragraph (7) which apply to the fishing vessel for which the permit is issued.

(c) REGISTRATION PERMITS.--The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, shall issue annually a registration permit for each fishing vessel of a foreign nation which is a party to an international fishery agreement under which foreign fishing is authorized by section 201(b) and which wishes to engage in fishing described in subsection (a). Each such permit shall set forth the terms and conditions contained in the agreement that apply with respect to such fishing, and shall include the additional requirement that the owner or operator of the fishing vessel for which the permit is issued shall prominently display such permit in the wheelhouse of such vessel and show it, upon request, to any officer authorized to enforce the provisions of this Act (as provided for in section 311). The Secretary of State, after consultation with the Secretary and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, shall prescribe the form and manner in which applications for registration permits may be made, and the forms of such permits. The Secretary of State may establish, require the payment of, and collect fees for registration permits; except that the level of such fees shall not exceed the administrative costs incurred by him in issuing such permits.

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(d) TRANSSHIPMENT PERMITS-

(1) AUTHORITY TO ISSUE PERMITS.--The Secretary may issue a transshipment permit under this subsection which authorizes a vessel other than a vessel of the United States to engage in fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish products at sea from a point within the exclusive economic zone or, with the concurrence of a State, within the boundaries of that State, to a point outside the United States to any person who--

(A) submits an application which is approved by the Secretary under paragraph (3); and

(B) pays a fee imposed under paragraph (7).

(2) TRANSMITTAL.--Upon receipt of an application for a permit under this subsection, the Secretary shall promptly transmit copies of the application to the Secretary of State, Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, any appropriate Council, and any affected State.

(3) APPROVAL OF APPLICATION.--The Secretary may approve, in consultation with the appropriate Council or Marine Fisheries Commission, an application for a permit under this section if the Secretary determines that--

(A) the transportation of fish or fish products to be conducted under the permit, as described in the application, will be in the interest of the United States and will meet the applicable requirements of this Act;

(B) the applicant will comply with the requirements described in section 201(c)(2) with respect to activities authorized by any permit issued pursuant to the application;

(C) the applicant has established any bonds or financial assurances that may be required by the Secretary; and

(D) no owner or operator of a vessel of the United States which has adequate capacity to perform the transportation for which the application is submitted has indicated to the Secretary an interest in performing the transportation at fair and reasonable rates.

(4) WHOLE OR PARTIAL APPROVAL.--The Secretary may approve all or any portion of an application under paragraph (3).

(5) FAILURE TO APPROVE APPLICATION.--If the Secretary does not approve any portion of an application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall promptly inform the applicant and specify the reasons therefor.

(6) CONDITIONS AND RESTRICTIONS.--The Secretary shall establish and include in each permit under this subsection conditions and restrictions, including those conditions and restrictions set forth in subsection (b)(7), which shall be complied with by the owner and operator of the vessel for which the permit is issued.

(7) FEES.--The Secretary shall collect a fee for each permit issued under this subsection, in an amount adequate to recover the costs incurred by the United States in issuing the permit, except that the Secretary shall waive the fee for the permit if the foreign nation under which the vessel is registered does not collect a fee from a vessel of the United States engaged in similar activities in the waters of such foreign nation.

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(e) PACIFIC INSULAR AREAS.--

(1) NEGOTIATION OF PACIFIC INSULAR AREA FISHERY AGREEMENTS.--The Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Secretary and in consultation with any appropriate Council, may negotiate and enter into a Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement to authorize foreign fishing within the exclusive economic zone adjacent to a Pacific Insular Area--

(A) in the case of American Samoa, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands, at the request and with the concurrence of, and in consultation with, the Governor of the Pacific Insular Area to which such agreement applies; and

(B) in the case of a Pacific Insular Area other than American Samoa, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands, at the request of the Western Pacific Council.

(2) AGREEMENT TERMS AND CONDITIONS.--A Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement--

(A) shall not be considered to supersede any governing international fishery agreement currently in effect under this Act, but shall provide an alternative basis for the conduct of foreign fishing within the exclusive economic zone adjacent to Pacific Insular Areas;

(B) shall be negotiated and implemented consistent only with the governing international fishery agreement provisions of this title specifically made applicable in this subsection;

(C) may not be negotiated with a nation that is in violation of a governing international fishery agreement in effect under this Act;

(D) shall not be entered into if it is determined by the Governor of the applicable Pacific Insular Area with respect to agreements initiated under paragraph (1)(A), or the Western Pacific Council with respect to agreements initiated under paragraph (1)(B), that such an agreement will adversely affect the fishing activities of the indigenous people of such Pacific Insular Area;

(E) shall be valid for a period not to exceed three years and shall only become effective according to the procedures in section 203; and

(F) shall require the foreign nation and its fishing vessels to comply with the requirements of paragraphs (1), (2), (3) and (4)(A) of section 201(c), section 201(d), and section 201(h).

(3) PERMITS FOR FOREIGN FISHING.--

(A) Application for permits for foreign fishing authorized under a Pacific Insular Areas fishing agreement shall be made, considered and approved or disapproved in accordance with paragraphs (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) (A) and (B), (8), and (9) of subsection (b), and shall include any conditions and restrictions established by the Secretary in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the Governor of the applicable Pacific Insular Area, and the appropriate Council.

(B) If a foreign nation notifies the Secretary of State of its acceptance of the requirements of this paragraph, paragraph (2)(F), and paragraph (5), including any conditions and restrictions established under subparagraph (A), the Secretary of State shall promptly transmit such notification to the Secretary. Upon receipt of any payment required under a Pacific Insular Area fishing agreement, the Secretary shall thereupon issue to such foreign nation, through the Secretary of State, permits for the appropriate fishing vessels of that nation. Each permit shall contain a statement of all of the requirements, conditions, and restrictions established under this subsection which apply to the fishing vessel for which the permit is issued.

(4) MARINE CONSERVATION PLANS.--

(A) Prior to entering into a Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement, the Western Pacific Council and the appropriate Governor shall develop a 3-year marine conservation plan detailing uses for funds to be collected by the Secretary pursuant to such agreement. Such plan shall be consistent with any applicable fishery management plan, identify conservation and management objectives (including criteria for determining when such objectives have been met), and prioritize planned marine conservation projects. Conservation and management objectives shall include, but not be limited to--

(i) establishment of Pacific Insular Area observer programs, approved by the Secretary in consultation with the Western Pacific Council, that provide observer coverage for foreign fishing under Pacific Insular Area fishery agreements that is at least equal in effectiveness to the program established by the Secretary under section 201(h);

(ii) conduct of marine and fisheries research, including development of systems for information collection, analysis, evaluation, and reporting;

(iii) conservation, education, and enforcement activities related to marine and coastal management, such as living marine resource assessments, habitat monitoring and coastal studies;

(iv) grants to the University of Hawaii for technical assistance projects by the Pacific Island Network, such as education and training in the development and implementation of sustainable marine resources development projects, scientific research, and conservation strategies; and

(v) western Pacific community-based demonstration projects under section 112(b) of the Sustainable Fisheries Act[2] and other coastal improvement projects to foster and promote the management, conservation, and economic enhancement of the Pacific Insular Areas.

(B) In the case of American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, the appropriate Governor, with the concurrence of the Western Pacific Council, shall develop the marine conservation plan described in subparagraph (A) and submit such plan to the Secretary for approval. In the case of other Pacific Insular Areas, the Western Pacific Council shall develop and submit the marine conservation plan described in subparagraph (A) to the Secretary for approval.

(C) If a Governor or the Western Pacific Council intends to request that the Secretary of State renew a Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement, a subsequent 3-year plan shall be submitted to the Secretary for approval by the end of the second year of the existing 3-year plan.

(5) RECIPROCAL CONDITIONS.--Except as expressly provided otherwise in this subsection, a Pacific Insular Area fishing agreement may include terms similar to the terms applicable to United States fishing vessels for access to similar fisheries in waters subject to the fisheries jurisdiction of another nation.

(6) USE OF PAYMENTS BY AMERICAN SAMOA, GUAM, NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS.--Any payments received by the Secretary under a Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement for American Samoa, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands shall be deposited into the United States Treasury and then covered over to the Treasury of the Pacific Insular Area for which those funds were collected. Amounts deposited in the Treasury of a Pacific Insular Area shall be available, without appropriation or fiscal year limitation, to the Governor of the Pacific Insular Area--

(A) to carry out the purposes of this subsection;

(B) to compensate (i) the Western Pacific Council for mutually agreed upon administrative costs incurred relating to any Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement for such Pacific Insular Area, and (ii) the Secretary of State for mutually agreed upon travel expenses for no more than 2 Federal representatives incurred as a direct result of complying with paragraph (1)(A); and

(C) to implement a marine conservation plan developed and approved under paragraph (4).

(7) WESTERN PACIFIC SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES FUND.--There is established in the United States Treasury a Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund into which any payments received by the Secretary under a Pacific Insular Area fishery agreement for any Pacific Insular Area other than American Samoa, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands shall be deposited. The Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund shall be made available, without appropriation or fiscal year limitation, to the Secretary, who shall provide such funds only to--

(A) the Western Pacific Council for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this subsection, including implementation of a marine conservation plan approved under paragraph (4);

(B) the Secretary of State for mutually agreed upon travel expenses for no more than 2 Federal representatives incurred as a direct result of complying with paragraph (1)(B); and

(C) the Western Pacific Council to meet conservation and management objectives in the State of Hawaii if monies remain in the Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund after the funding requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) have been satisfied. Amounts deposited in such fund shall not diminish funding received by the Western Pacific Council for the purpose of carrying out other responsibilities under this Act.

(8) USE OF FINES AND PENALTIES.--In the case of violations occurring within the exclusive economic zone off American Samoa, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands, amounts received by the Secretary which are attributable to fines or penalties imposed under this Act, including such sums collected from the forfeiture and disposition or sale of property seized subject to its authority, after payment of direct costs of the enforcement action to all entities involved in such action, shall be deposited into the Treasury of the Pacific Insular Area adjacent to the exclusive economic zone in which the violation occurred, to be used for fisheries enforcement and for implementation of a marine conservation plan under paragraph (4).

104-297, sec. 105(e)

Note: ATLANTIC HERRING TRANSSHIPMENT--Within 30 days of receiving an application, the Secretary shall, under section 204(d) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act [Public Law 104-297], issue permits to up to fourteen Canadian transport vessels that are not equipped for fish harvesting or processing, for the transshipment, within the boundaries of the State of Maine or within the portion of the exclusive economic zone east of the line 69 degrees 30 minutes west and within 12 nautical miles from the seaward boundary of that State, of Atlantic herring harvested by United States fishermen within the area described and used solely in sardine processing. In issuing a permit pursuant to this subsection, the Secretary shall provide a waiver under section 201(h)(2)(C) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act: Provided, That such vessels comply with Federal or State monitoring and reporting requirements for the Atlantic herring fishery, including the stationing of United States observers aboard such vessels, if necessary.

SEC. 205. IMPORT PROHIBITIONS 16 U.S.C. 1825

101-627

(a) DETERMINATIONS BY SECRETARY OF STATE.-- If the Secretary of State determines that--

(1) he has been unable, within a reasonable period of time, to conclude with any foreign nation an international fishery agreement allowing fishing vessels of the United States equitable access to fisheries over which that nation asserts exclusive fishery management authority, including fisheries for tuna species, as recognized by the United States, in accordance with fishing activities of such vessels, if any, and under terms not more restrictive than those established under sections 201(c) and (d) and 204(b)(7) and (10), because such nation has (A) refused to commence negotiations, or (B) failed to negotiate in good faith;

(2) any foreign nation is not allowing fishing vessels of the United States to engage in fishing for tuna species in accordance with an applicable international fishery agreement, whether or not such nation is a party thereto;

(3) any foreign nation is not complying with its obligations under any existing international fishery agreement concerning fishing by fishing vessels of the United States in any fishery over which that nation asserts exclusive fishery management authority; or

(4) any fishing vessel of the United States, while fishing in waters beyond any foreign nation's territorial sea, to the extent that such sea is recognized by the United States, is seized by any foreign nation--

(A) in violation of an applicable international fishery agreement;

(B) without authorization under an agreement between the United States and such nation; or

(C) as a consequence of a claim of jurisdiction which is not recognized by the United States;

he shall certify such determination to the Secretary of the Treasury.

(b) PROHIBITIONS.--Upon receipt of any certification from the Secretary of State under subsection (a), the Secretary of the Treasury shall immediately take such action as may be necessary and appropriate to prohibit the importation into the United States--

(1) of all fish and fish products from the fishery involved, if any; and

(2) upon recommendation of the Secretary of State, such other fish or fish products, from any fishery of the foreign nation concerned, which the Secretary of State finds to be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.

(c) REMOVAL OF PROHIBITION.--If the Secretary of State finds that the reasons for the imposition of any import prohibition under this section no longer prevail, the Secretary of State shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury, who shall promptly remove such import prohibition.

(d) DEFINITIONS.--As used in this section--

(1) The term "fish" includes any highly migratory species.

(2) The term "fish products" means any article which is produced from or composed of (in whole or in part) any fish.

101-267

SEC. 206. LARGE-SCALE DRIFTNET FISHING 16 U.S.C. 1826

(a) SHORT TITLE.--This section incorporates and expands upon provisions of the Driftnet Impact Monitoring, Assessment, and Control Act of 1987 and may be cited as the "Driftnet Act Amendments of 1990".

(b) FINDINGS.--The Congress finds that--

(1) the continued widespread use of large-scale driftnets beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation is a destructive fishing practice that poses a threat to living marine resources of the world's oceans, including but not limited to the North and South Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea;

(2) the use of large-scale driftnets is expanding into new regions of the world's oceans, including the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea;

(3) there is a pressing need for detailed and reliable information on the number of seabirds, sea turtles, nontarget fish, and marine mammals that become entangled and die in actively fished large-scale driftnets and in large-scale driftnets that are lost, abandoned, or discarded;

(4) increased efforts, including reliable observer data and enforcement mechanisms, are needed to monitor, assess, control, and reduce the adverse impact of large-scale driftnet fishing on living marine resources;

(5) the nations of the world have agreed in the United Nations, through General Assembly Resolution Numbered 44-225, approved December 22, 1989, by the General Assembly, that a moratorium should be imposed by June 30, 1992, on the use of large-scale driftnets beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation;

(6) the nations of the South Pacific have agreed to a moratorium on the use of large- scale driftnets in the South Pacific through the Convention for the Prohibition of Fishing with Long Driftnets in the South Pacific, which was agreed to in Wellington, New Zealand, on November 29, 1989; and

(7) increasing population pressures and new knowledge of the importance of living marine resources to the health of the global ecosystem demand that greater responsibility be exercised by persons fishing or developing new fisheries beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation.

(c) POLICY.--It is declared to be the policy of the Congress in this section that the United States should--

(1) implement the moratorium called for by the United Nations General Assembly in Resolution Numbered 44-225;

(2) support the Tarawa Declaration and the Wellington Convention for the Prohibition of Fishing with Long Driftnets in the South Pacific; and

(3) secure a permanent ban on the use of destructive fishing practices, and in particular large-scale driftnets, by persons or vessels fishing beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation.

(d) INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS.--The Secretary, through the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, shall seek to secure international agreements to implement immediately the findings, policy, and provisions of this section, and in particular an international ban on large-scale driftnet fishing. The Secretary, through the Secretary of State, shall include, in any agreement which addresses the taking of living marine resources of the United States, provisions to ensure that--

(1) each large-scale driftnet fishing vessel of a foreign nation that is party to the agreement, including vessels that may operate independently to develop new fishing areas, which operate beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation, is included in such agreement;

(2) each large-scale driftnet fishing vessel of a foreign nation that is party to the agreement, which operates beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation, is equipped with satellite transmitters which provide real-time position information accessible to the United States;

(3) statistically reliable monitoring by the United States is carried out, through the use of on-board observers or through dedicated platforms provided by foreign nations that are parties to the agreement, of all target and nontarget fish species, marine mammals, sea turtles, and sea birds entangled or killed by large-scale driftnets used by fishing vessels of foreign nations that are parties to the agreement;

(4) officials of the United States have the right to board and inspect for violations of the agreement any large-scale driftnet fishing vessels operating under the flag of a foreign nation that is party to the agreement at any time while such vessel is operating in designated areas beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation;

(5) all catch landed or transshipped at sea by large-scale driftnet fishing vessels of a foreign nation that is a party to the agreement, and which are operated beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation, is reliably monitored and documented;

(6) time and area restrictions are imposed on the use of large-scale driftnets in order to prevent interception of anadromous species;

(7) all large-scale driftnets used are constructed, insofar as feasible, with biodegradable materials which break into segments that do not represent a threat to living marine resources;

(8) all large-scale driftnets are marked at appropriate intervals in a manner that conclusively identifies the vessel and flag nation responsible for each such driftnet;

(9) the taking of nontarget fish species, marine mammals, sea turtles, seabirds, and endangered species or other species protected by international agreements to which the United States is a party is minimized and does not pose a threat to existing fisheries or the long-term health of living marine resources; and

(10) definitive steps are agreed upon to ensure that parties to the agreement comply with the spirit of other international agreements and resolutions concerning the use of large-scale driftnets beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation.

104-297

(e) REPORT.--Not later than January 1, 1991, and every year thereafter until the purposes of this section are met, the Secretary, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of the House of Representatives a report--

(1) describing the steps taken to carry out the provisions of this section, particularly subsection (c);

(2) evaluating the progress of those efforts, the impacts on living marine resources, including available observer data, and specifying plans for further action;

(3) containing a list and description of any new fisheries developed by nations that conduct, or authorize their nationals to conduct, large-scale driftnet fishing beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation; and

(4) containing a list of the nations that conduct, or authorize their nationals to conduct, large-scale driftnet fishing beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation in a manner that diminishes the effectiveness of or is inconsistent with any international agreement governing large-scale driftnet fishing to which the United States is a party or otherwise subscribes.

104-297

(f) CERTIFICATION.--If at any time the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, identifies any nation that warrants inclusion in the list described under subsection (e)(4), the Secretary shall certify that fact to the President. Such certification shall be deemed to be a certification for the purposes of section 8(a) of the Fishermen's Protective Act of 1967 (22 U.S.C. 1978(a)).

(g) EFFECT ON SOVEREIGN RIGHTS.--This section shall not serve or be construed to expand or diminish the sovereign rights of the United States, as stated by Presidential Proclamation Numbered 5030, dated March 10, 1983, and reflected in this Act or other existing law.

(h) DEFINITION.--As used in this section, the term "living marine resources" includes fish, marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds and other waterfowl.

102-582 16 U.S.C. 1826a

SEC. 206a. DENIAL OF PORT PRIVILEGES AND SANCTIONS

FOR HIGH SEAS LARGE-SCALE DRIFTNET FISHING

(a) DENIAL OF PORT PRIVILEGES.--

(1) PUBLICATION OF LIST.--Not later than 30 days after November 2, 1992, and periodically thereafter, the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall publish a list of nations whose nationals or vessels conduct large-scale driftnet fishing beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation.

(2) DENIAL OF PORT PRIVILEGES.--The Secretary of the Treasury shall, in accordance with recognized principles of international law--

(A) withhold or revoke the clearance required by section 91 of the Appendix to Title 46 for any large-scale driftnet fishing vessel that is documented under the laws of the United States or of a nation included on a list published under paragraph (1); and

(B) deny entry of that vessel to any place in the United States and to the navigable waters of the United States.

(3) NOTIFICATION OF NATION.--Before the publication of a list of nations under paragraph (1), the Secretary of State shall notify each nation included on that list regarding--

(A) the effect of that publication on port privileges of vessels of that nation under paragraph (1); and

(B) any sanctions or requirements, under this Act or any other law, that may be imposed on that nation if nationals or vessels of that nation continue to conduct large-scale driftnet fishing beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation after December 31, 1992.

(b) SANCTIONS.--

(1) IDENTIFICATIONS.--

(A) INITIAL IDENTIFICATIONS.--Not later than January 10, 1993, the Secretary of Commerce shall--

(i) identify each nation whose nationals or vessels are conducting large-scale driftnet fishing beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation; and

(ii) notify the President and that nation of the identification under clause (i).

(B) ADDITIONAL IDENTIFICATIONS.--At any time after January 10, 1993, whenever the Secretary of Commerce has reason to believe that the nationals or vessels of any nation are conducting large-scale driftnet fishing beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation, the Secretary of Commerce shall--

(i) identify that nation; and

(ii) notify the President and that nation of the identification under clause (i).

(2) CONSULTATIONS.--Not later than 30 days after a nation is identified under paragraph (1)(B), the President shall enter consultations with the government of that nation for the purpose of obtaining an agreement that will effect the immediate termination of large-scale driftnet fishing by the nationals or vessels of that nation beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation.

(3) PROHIBITION ON IMPORTS OF FISH AND FISH PRODUCTS AND

SPORT FISHING EQUIPMENT.--

(A) PROHIBITION.--The President--

(i) upon receipt of notification of the identification of a nation under paragraph (1)(A); or

(ii) if the consultations with the government of a nation under paragraph (2) are not satisfactorily concluded within 90 days,

shall direct the Secretary of the Treasury to prohibit the importation into the United States of fish and fish products and sport fishing equipment (as that term is defined in section 4162 of Title 26) from that nation.

(B) IMPLEMENTATION OF PROHIBITION.--With respect to an import prohibition directed under subparagraph (A), the Secretary of the Treasury shall implement such prohibition not later than the date that is 45 days after the date on which the Secretary has received the direction from the President.

(C) PUBLIC NOTICE OF PROHIBITION.--Before the effective date of any import prohibition under this paragraph, the Secretary of the Treasury shall provide public notice of the impending prohibition.

(4) ADDITIONAL ECONOMIC SANCTIONS.--

(A) DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF SANCTIONS.--Not later than six months after the date the Secretary of Commerce identifies a nation under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall determine whether--

(i) any prohibition established under paragraph (3) is insufficient to cause that nation to terminate large-scale driftnet fishing conducted by its nationals and vessels beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation; or

(ii) that nation has retaliated against the United States as a result of that prohibition.

(B) CERTIFICATION.--The Secretary of Commerce shall certify to the President each affirmative determination under subparagraph (A) with respect to a nation.

(C) EFFECT OF CERTIFICATION.--Certification by the Secretary of Commerce under subparagraph (B) is deemed to be a certification under section 1978(a) of Title 22, as amended by this Act.

102-582

SEC. 206b. DURATION OF DENIAL OF PORT 18 U.S.C. 1826b

PRIVILEGES AND SANCTIONS

Any denial of port privileges or sanction under section 206a of this Act with respect to a nation shall remain in effect until such time as the Secretary of Commerce certifies to the President and the Congress that such nation has terminated large-scale driftnet fishing by its nationals and vessels beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation.

102-582

SEC. 206c. DEFINITIONS 16 U.S.C. 1826c

In sections 206a to 206c of this title, the following definitions apply:

(1) FISH AND FISH PRODUCTS.--The term "fish and fish products" means any aquatic species (including marine mammals and plants) and all products thereof exported from a nation, whether or not taken by fishing vessels of that nation or packed, processed, or otherwise prepared for export in that nation or within the jurisdiction thereof.

(2) LARGE-SCALE DRIFTNET FISHING.--

(A) IN GENERAL.--Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "large-scale driftnet fishing" means a method of fishing in which a gillnet composed of a panel or panels of webbing, or a series of such gillnets, with a total length of two and one-half kilometers or more is placed in the water and allowed to drift with the currents and winds for the purpose of entangling fish in the webbing.

(B) EXCEPTION.--Until January 1, 1994, the term "large-scale driftnet fishing" does not include the use in the northeast Atlantic Ocean of gillnets with a total length not to exceed five kilometers if the use is in accordance with regulations adopted by the European Community pursuant to the October 28, 1991, decision by the Council of Fisheries Ministers of the Community.

(3) LARGE-SCALE DRIFTNET FISHING VESSEL.--The term "large-scale driftnet fishing vessel means any vessel which is--

(A) used for, equipped to be used for, or of a type which is normally used for large-scale driftnet fishing; or

(B) used for aiding or assisting one or more vessels at sea in the performance of large-scale driftnet fishing, including preparation, supply, storage, refrigeration, transportation, or processing.

TITLE III -- NATIONAL FISHERY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

SEC. 301. NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR FISHERY 16 U.S.C. 1851

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

(a) IN GENERAL.--Any fishery management plan prepared, and any regulation promulgated to implement any such plan, pursuant to this title shall be consistent with the following national standards for fishery conservation and management:

98-623

(1) Conservation and management measures shall prevent overfishing while achieving, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield from each fishery for the United States fishing industry.

(2) Conservation and management measures shall be based upon the best scientific information available.

(3) To the extent practicable, an individual stock of fish shall be managed as a unit throughout its range, and interrelated stocks of fish shall be managed as a unit or in close coordination.

(4) Conservation and management measures shall not discriminate between residents of different States. If it becomes necessary to allocate or assign fishing privileges among various United States fishermen, such allocation shall be (A) fair and equitable to all such fishermen; (B) reasonably calculated to promote conservation; and (C) carried out in such manner that no particular individual, corporation, or other entity acquires an excessive share of such privileges.

104-297

(5) Conservation and management measures shall, where practicable, consider efficiency in the utilization of fishery resources; except that no such measure shall have economic allocation as its sole purpose.

(6) Conservation and management measures shall take into account and allow for variations among, and contingencies in, fisheries, fishery resources, and catches.

(7) Conservation and management measures shall, where practicable, minimize costs and avoid unnecessary duplication.

104-297

(8) Conservation and management measures shall, consistent with the conservation requirements of this Act (including the prevention of overfishing and rebuilding of overfished stocks), take into account the importance of fishery resources to fishing communities in order to (A) provide for the sustained participation of such communities, and (B) to the extent practicable, minimize adverse economic impacts on such communities.

104-297

(9) Conservation and management measures shall, to the extent practicable, (A) minimize bycatch and (B) to the extent bycatch cannot be avoided, minimize the mortality of such bycatch.

104-297

(10) Conservation and management measures shall, to the extent practicable, promote the safety of human life at sea.

97-453

(b) GUIDELINES.-- The Secretary shall establish advisory guidelines (which shall not have the force and effect of law), based on the national standards, to assist in the development of fishery management plans.

SEC. 302. REGIONAL FISHERY MANAGEMENT COUNCILS 16 U.S.C. 1852

97-453, 101-627, 104-297

(a) ESTABLISHMENT.--(1) There shall be established, within 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, eight Regional Fishery Management Councils, as follows:

(A) NEW ENGLAND COUNCIL.--The New England Fishery Management Council shall consist of the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut and shall have authority over the fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean seaward of such States (except as provided in paragraph (3)). The New England Council shall have 17 voting members, including 11 appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (b)(2) (at least one of whom shall be appointed from each such State).

(B) MID-ATLANTIC COUNCIL.--The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council shall consist of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina and shall have authority over the fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean seaward of such States (except North Carolina, and as provided in paragraph (3)). The Mid-Atlantic Council shall have 21 voting members, including 13 appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (b)(2) (at least one of whom shall be appointed from each such State).

(C) SOUTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL.--The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council shall consist of the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and shall have authority over the fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean seaward of such States (except as provided in paragraph (3)). The South Atlantic Council shall have 13 voting members, including 8 appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (b)(2) (at least one of whom shall be appointed from each such State).

(D) CARIBBEAN COUNCIL.--The Caribbean Fishery Management Council shall consist of the Virgin Islands and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and shall have authority over the fisheries in the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean seaward of such States (except as provided in paragraph (3)). The Caribbean Council shall have 7 voting members, including 4 appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (b)(2) (at least one of whom shall be appointed from each such State).

(E) GULF COUNCIL.--The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council shall consist of the States of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida and shall have authority over the fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico seaward of such States (except as provided in paragraph (3)). The Gulf Council shall have 17 voting members, including 11 appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (b)(2) (at least one of whom shall be appointed from each such State).

(F) PACIFIC COUNCIL.--The Pacific Fishery Management Council shall consist of the States of California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and shall have authority over the fisheries in the Pacific Ocean seaward of such States. The Pacific Council shall have 14 voting members, including 8 appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (b)(2) (at least one of whom shall be appointed from each such State), and including one appointed from an Indian tribe with Federally recognized fishing rights from California, Oregon, Washington, or Idaho in accordance with subsection (b)(5).

(G) NORTH PACIFIC COUNCIL.--The North Pacific Fishery Management Council shall consist of the States of Alaska, Washington, and Oregon and shall have authority over the fisheries in the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and Pacific Ocean seaward of Alaska. The North Pacific Council shall have 11 voting members, including 7 appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (b)(2) (5 of whom shall be appointed from the State of Alaska and 2 of whom shall be appointed from the State of Washington).

(H) WESTERN PACIFIC COUNCIL.--The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council shall consist of the States of Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands and shall have authority over the fisheries in the Pacific Ocean seaward of such States and of the Commonwealths, territories, and possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean area. The Western Pacific Council shall have 13 voting members, including 8 appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (b)(2) (at least one of whom shall be appointed from each of the following States: Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands).

(2) Each Council shall reflect the expertise and interest of the several constituent States in the ocean area over which such Council is granted authority.

(3) The Secretary shall have authority over any highly migratory species fishery that is within the geographical area of authority of more than one of the following Councils: New England Council, Mid-Atlantic Council, South Atlantic Council, Gulf Council, and Caribbean Council.

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(b) VOTING MEMBERS.--

(1) The voting members of each Council shall be:

(A) The principal State official with marine fishery management responsibility and expertise in each constituent State, who is designated as such by the Governor of the State, so long as the official continues to hold such position, or the designee of such official.

(B) The regional director of the National Marine Fisheries Service for the geographic area concerned, or his designee, except that if two such directors are within such geographical area, the Secretary shall designate which of such directors shall be the voting member.

(C) The members required to be appointed by the Secretary in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (5).

(2) (A) The members of each Council required to be appointed by the Secretary must be individuals who, by reason of their occupational or other experience, scientific expertise, or training, are knowledgeable regarding the conservation and management, or the commercial or recreational harvest, of the fishery resources of the geographical area concerned. Within nine months after the date of enactment of the Fishery Conservation Amendments of 1990, the Secretary shall, by regulation, prescribe criteria for determining whether an individual satisfies the requirements of this subparagraph.

(B) The Secretary, in making appointments under this section, shall, to the extent practicable, ensure a fair and balanced apportionment, on a rotating or other basis, of the active participants (or their representatives) in the commercial and recreational fisheries under the jurisdiction of the Council. On January 31, 1991, and each year thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of the House of Representatives a report on the actions taken by the Secretary to ensure that such fair and balanced apportionment is achieved. The report shall--

(i) list the fisheries under the jurisdiction of each Council, outlining for each fishery the type and quantity of fish harvested, fishing and processing methods employed, the number of participants, the duration and range of the fishery, and other distinguishing characteristics;

(ii) assess the membership of each Council in terms of the apportionment of the active participants in each such fishery; and

(iii) state the Secretary's plans and schedule for actions to achieve a fair and balanced apportionment on the Council for the active participants in any such fishery.

(C) The Secretary shall appoint the members of each Council from a list of individuals submitted by the Governor of each applicable constituent State. A Governor may not submit the names of individuals to the Secretary for appointment unless the Governor has determined that each such individual is qualified under the requirements of subparagraph (A) and unless the Governor has, to the extent practicable, first consulted with representatives of the commercial and recreational fishing interests of the State regarding those individuals. Each such list shall include the names and pertinent biographical data of not less than three individuals for each applicable vacancy and shall be accompanied by a statement by the Governor explaining how each such individual meets the requirements of subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall review each list submitted by a Governor to ascertain if the individuals on the list are qualified for the vacancy on the basis of such requirements. If the Secretary determines that any individual is not qualified, the Secretary shall notify the appropriate Governor of that determination. The Governor shall then submit a revised list or resubmit the original list with an additional explanation of the qualifications of the individual in question. An individual is not eligible for appointment by the Secretary until that individual complies with the applicable financial disclosure requirements under subsection (k).

(D) Whenever the Secretary makes an appointment to a Council, the Secretary shall make a public announcement of such appointment not less than 45 days before the first day on which the individual is to take office as a member of the Council.

(3) Each voting member appointed to a Council by the Secretary in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (5) shall serve for a term of 3 years; except that the Secretary may designate a shorter term if necessary to provide for balanced expiration to terms of office. No member appointed after January 1, 1986, may serve more than three consecutive terms. Any term in which an individual was appointed to replace a member who left office during the term shall not be counted in determining the number of consecutive terms served by that Council member.

(4) Successors to the voting members of any Council shall be appointed in the same manner as the original voting members. Any individual appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of any term of office shall be appointed for the remainder of that term.

(5) (A) The Secretary shall appoint to the Pacific Council one representative of an Indian tribe with Federally recognized fishing rights from California, Oregon, Washington, or Idaho from a list of not less than 3 individuals submitted by the tribal governments. The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and tribal governments, shall establish by regulation the procedure for submitting a list under this subparagraph.

(B) Representation shall be rotated among the tribes taking into consideration--

(i) the qualifications of the individuals on the list referred to in subparagraph (A),

(ii) the various rights of the Indian tribes involved and judicial cases that set forth how those rights are to be exercised, and

(iii) the geographic area in which the tribe of the representative is located.

(C) A vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of any term shall be filled in the same manner as set out in subparagraphs (A) and (B), except that the Secretary may use the list from which the vacating representative was chosen.

(6) The Secretary may remove for cause any member of a Council required to be appointed by the Secretary in accordance with paragraphs (2) or (5) if--

(A) the Council concerned first recommends removal by not less than two-thirds of the members who are voting members and submits such removal recommendation to the Secretary in writing together with a statement of the basis for the recommendation; or

(B) the member is found by the Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5, United States Code, to have committed an act prohibited by section 307(1)(O).

(c) NONVOTING MEMBERS.--

(1) The nonvoting members of each Council shall be:

(A) The regional or area director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service for the geographical area concerned, or his designee.

(B) The commander of the Coast Guard district for the geographical area concerned, or his designee; except that, if two Coast Guard districts are within such geographical area, the commander designated for such purpose by the commandant of the Coast Guard.

(C) The Executive Director of the Marine Fisheries Commission for the geographical area concerned, if any, or his designee.

(D) One representative of the Department of State designated for such purpose by the Secretary of State, or his designee.

(2) The Pacific Council shall have one additional nonvoting member who shall be appointed by, and serve at the pleasure of, the Governor of Alaska.

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(d) COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES.--The voting members of each Council who are required to be appointed by the Secretary and who are not employed by the Federal Government or any State or local government, shall receive compensation at the daily rate for GS-15, step 7 of the General Schedule, when engaged in the actual performance of duties for such Council. The voting members of each Council, any nonvoting member described in subsection (c)(1)(C), and the nonvoting member appointed pursuant to subsection (c)(2) shall be reimbursed for actual expenses incurred in the performance of such duties, and other nonvoting members and Council staff members may be reimbursed for actual expenses.

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(e) TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS.-- (1) A majority of the voting members of any Council shall constitute a quorum, but one or more such members designated by the Council may hold hearings. All decisions of any Council shall be by majority vote of the voting members present and voting.

(2) The voting members of each Council shall select a Chairman for such Council from among the voting members.

(3) Each Council shall meet at appropriate times and places in any of the constituent States of the Council at the call of the Chairman or upon the request of a majority of its voting members.

(4) If any voting member of a Council disagrees with respect to any matter which is transmitted to the Secretary by such Council, such member may submit a statement to the Secretary setting forth the reasons for such disagreement. The regional director of the National Marine Fisheries Service serving on the Council, or the regional director's designee, shall submit such a statement, which shall be made available to the public upon request, if the regional director disagrees with any such matter.

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(5) At the request of any voting member of a Council, the Council shall hold a roll call vote on any matter before the Council. The official minutes and other appropriate records of any Council meeting shall identify all roll call votes held, the name of each voting member present during each roll call vote, and how each member voted on each roll call vote.

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(f) STAFF AND ADMINISTRATION.--

(1) Each Council may appoint, and assign duties to, an executive director and such other full- and part-time administrative employees as the Secretary determines are necessary to the performance of its functions.

(2) Upon the request of any Council, and after consultation with the Secretary, the head of any Federal agency is authorized to detail to such Council, on a reimbursable basis, any of the personnel of such agency, to assist such Council in the performance of its functions under this Act.

(3) The Secretary shall provide to each Council such administrative and technical support services as are necessary for the effective functioning of such Council.

(4) The Administrator of General Services shall furnish each Council with such offices, equipment, supplies, and services as he is authorized to furnish to any other agency or instrumentality of the United States.

(5) The Secretary and the Secretary of State shall furnish each Council with relevant information concerning foreign fishing and international fishery agreements.

(6) Each Council shall determine its organization, and prescribe its practices and procedures for carrying out its functions under this Act, in accordance with such uniform standards as are prescribed by the Secretary. The procedures of a Council, and of its scientific and statistical committee and advisory panels established under subsection (g), must be consistent with the procedural guidelines set forth in subsection [j](2). Each Council shall publish and make available to the public a statement of its organization, practices, and procedures.

(7) The Secretary shall pay--

(A) the compensation and expenses provided for in subsection (d);

(B) appropriate compensation to employees appointed under paragraph (1);

(C) the amounts required for reimbursement of other Federal agencies under paragraphs (2) and (4);

(D) the actual expenses of the members of the committees and panels established under subsection (g); and

(E) such other costs as the Secretary determines are necessary to the performance of the functions of the Councils.

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(g) COMMITTEES AND PANELS.--

(1) Each Council shall establish and maintain, and appoint the members of, a scientific and statistical committee to assist it in the development, collection, and evaluation of such statistical, biological, economic, social, and other scientific information as is relevant to such Council's development and amendment of any fishery management plan.

(2) Each Council shall establish such other advisory panels as are necessary or appropriate to assist it in carrying out its functions under this Act.

(3) (A) Each Council shall establish and maintain a fishing industry advisory committee which shall provide information and recommendations on, and assist in the development of, fishery management plans and amendments to such plans.

(B) Appointments to a committee established under subparagraph (A) shall be made by each Council in such a manner as to provide fair representation to commercial fishing interests in the geographical area of authority of the Council.

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(4) The Secretary shall establish advisory panels to assist in the collection and evaluation of information relevant to the development of any fishery management plan or plan amendment for a fishery to which subsection (a)(3) applies. Each advisory panel shall participate in all aspects of the development of the plan or amendment; be balanced in its representation of commercial, recreational, and other interests; and consist of not less than 7 individuals who are knowledgeable about the fishery for which the plan or amendment is developed, selected from among--

(A) members of advisory committees and species working groups appointed under Acts implementing relevant international fishery agreements pertaining to highly migratory species; and

(B) other interested persons.

(5) Decisions and recommendations made by committees and panels established under this subsection shall be considered to be advisory in nature.

95-354, 97-453, 101-627

(h) FUNCTIONS.--Each Council shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Act--

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(1) for each fishery under its authority that requires conservation and management, prepare and submit to the Secretary (A) a fishery management plan, and (B) amendments to each such plan that are necessary from time to time (and promptly whenever changes in conservation and management measures in another fishery substantially affect the fishery for which such plan was developed);

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(2) prepare comments on any application for foreign fishing transmitted to it under section 204(b)(4)(C) or section 204(d), and any fishery management plan or amendment transmitted to it under section 304(c)(4);

(3) conduct public hearings, at appropriate times and in appropriate locations in the geographical area concerned, so as to allow all interested persons an opportunity to be heard in the development of fishery management plans and amendments to such plans, and with respect to the administration and implementation of the provisions of this Act (and for purposes of this paragraph, the term "geographical area concerned" may include an area under the authority of another Council if the fish in the fishery concerned migrate into, or occur in, that area or if the matters being heard affect fishermen of that area; but not unless such other Council is first consulted regarding the conduct of such hearings within its area);

(4) submit to the Secretary such periodic reports as the Council deems appropriate, and any other relevant report which may be requested by the Secretary;

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(5) review on a continuing basis, and revise as appropriate, the assessments and specifications made pursuant to section 303(a)(3) and (4) with respect to the optimum yield from, the capacity and extent to which United States fish processors will process United States harvested fish from, and the total allowable level of foreign fishing in, each fishery (except as provided in section subsection (a)(3)) within its geographical area of authority; and

(6) conduct any other activities which are required by, or provided for in, this Act or which are necessary and appropriate to the foregoing functions.

97-453, 99-659, 101-627

(i) PROCEDURAL MATTERS.--

(1) The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2) shall not apply to the Councils or to the scientific and statistical committees or advisory panels established under subsection (g).

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(2) The following guidelines apply with respect to the conduct of business at meetings of a Council, and of the scientific and statistical committee and advisory panels established under subsection (g).

(A) Unless closed in accordance with paragraph (3), each regular meeting and each emergency meeting shall be open to the public.

(B) Emergency meetings shall be held at the call of the chairman or equivalent presiding officer.

(C) Timely public notice of each regular meeting and each emergency meeting, including the time, place, and agenda of the meeting, shall be published in local newspapers in the major fishing ports of the region (and in other major fishing ports having a direct interest in the affected fishery) and such notice may be given by such other means as will result in wide publicity. Timely notice of each regular meeting shall also be published in the Federal Register. The published agenda of the meeting may not be modified to include additional matters for Council action without public notice or within 14 days prior to the meeting date, unless such modification is to address an emergency action under section 305(c), in which case public notice shall be given immediately.

(D) Interested persons shall be permitted to present oral or written statements regarding the matters on the agenda at meetings. All written information submitted to a Council by an interested person shall include a statement of the source and date of such information. Any oral or written statement shall include a brief description of the background and interests of the person in the subject of the oral or written statement.

(E) Detailed minutes of each meeting of the Council, except for any closed session, shall be kept and shall contain a record of the persons present, a complete and accurate description of matters discussed and conclusions reached, and copies of all statements filed. The Chairman shall certify the accuracy of the minutes of each such meeting and submit a copy thereof to the Secretary. The minutes shall be made available to any court of competent jurisdiction.

(F) Subject to the procedures established under paragraph (4), and the guidelines prescribed by the Secretary under section 402(b), relating to confidentiality, the administrative record, including minutes required under subparagraph (E), of each meeting, and records or other documents which were made available to or prepared for or by the Council, committee, or panel incident to the meeting, shall be available for public inspection and copying at a single location in the offices of the Council or the Secretary, as appropriate.

(3) (A) Each Council, scientific and statistical committee, and advisory panel--

(i) shall close any meeting, or portion thereof, that concerns matters or information that bears a national security classification; and

(ii) may close any meeting, or portion thereof, that concerns matters or information that pertains to national security, employment matters, or briefings on litigation in which the Council is interested; and

(B) If any meeting or portion is closed, the Council concerned shall notify local newspapers in the major fishing ports within its region (and in other major, affected fishing ports), including in that notification the time and place of the meeting. This subparagraph does not require notification regarding any brief closure of a portion of a meeting in order to discuss employment or other internal administrative matters. Subparagraphs (D) and (F) of paragraph (2) shall not apply to any meeting or portion thereof that is so closed.

(4) Each Council shall establish appropriate procedures applicable to it and to its committee and advisory panels for ensuring confidentiality of the statistics that may be submitted to it by Federal or State authorities, and may be voluntarily submitted to it by private persons; including, but not limited to, procedures for the restriction of Council employee access and the prevention of conflicts of interest; except that such procedures, in the case of statistics submitted to the Council by a State or by the Secretary under section 402(b), must be consistent with the laws and regulations of that State, or with the procedures of the Secretary, as the case may be, concerning the confidentiality of the statistics.

(5) Each Council shall specify those procedures that are necessary or appropriate to ensure that the committees and advisory panels established under subsection (g) are involved, on a continuing basis, in the development and amendment of fishery management plans.

(6) At any time when a Council determines it appropriate to consider new information from a State or Federal agency or from a Council advisory body, the Council shall give comparable consideration to new information offered at that time by interested members of the public. Interested parties shall have a reasonable opportunity to respond to new data or information before the Council takes final action on conservation and management measures.

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(j) DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL INTEREST AND RECUSAL.--

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(1) For the purposes of this subsection--

(A) the term "affected individual" means an individual who--

(i) is nominated by the Governor of a State for appointment as a voting member of a Council in accordance with subsection (b)(2); or

(ii) is a voting member of a Council appointed--

(I) under subsection (b)(2); or

(II) under subsection (b)(5) who is not subject to disclosure and recusal requirements under the laws of an Indian tribal government; and

(B) the term "designated official" means a person with expertise in Federal conflict-of-interest requirements who is designated by the Secretary, in consultation with the Council, to attend Council meetings and make determinations under paragraph (7)(B).

(2) Each affected individual must disclose any financial interest held by--

(A) that individual;

(B) the spouse, minor child, or partner of that individual; and

(C) any organization (other than the Council) in which that individual is serving as an officer, director, trustee, partner, or employee;

in any harvesting, processing, or marketing activity that is being, or will be, undertaken within any fishery over which the Council concerned has jurisdiction.

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(3) The disclosure required under paragraph (2) shall be made--

(A) in the case of an affected individual referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(i), before appointment by the Secretary; and

(B) in the case of an affected individual referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(ii), within 45 days of taking office.

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(4) An affected individual referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(ii) must update his or her disclosure form at any time any such financial interest is acquired, or substantially changed, by any person referred to in paragraph (2)(A), (B), or (C).

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(5) The financial interest disclosures required by this subsection shall--

(A) be made on such forms, in accordance with such procedures, and at such times, as the Secretary shall by regulation prescribe;

(B) be kept on file, and made available for public inspection at reasonable hours, at the Council offices; and

(C) be kept on file by the Secretary for use in reviewing determinations under paragraph 7(B) and made available for public inspection at reasonable hours.

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(6) The participation by an affected individual referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(ii) in an action by a Council during any time in which that individual is not in compliance with the regulations prescribed under paragraph (5) may not be treated as cause for the invalidation of that action.

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(7) (A) After the effective date of regulations promulgated under subparagraph (F) of this paragraph, an affected individual required to disclose a financial interest under paragraph (2) shall not vote on a Council decision which would have a significant and predictable effect on such financial interest. A Council decision shall be considered to have a significant and predictable effect on a financial interest if there is a close causal link between the Council decision and an expected and substantially disproportionate benefit to the financial interest of the affected individual relative to the financial interests of other participants in the same gear type or sector of the fishery. An affected individual who may not vote may participate in Council deliberations relating to the decision after notifying the Council of the voting recusal and identifying the financial interest that would be affected.

(B) At the request of an affected individual, or upon the initiative of the appropriate designated official, the designated official shall make a determination for the record whether a Council decision would have a significant and predictable effect on a financial interest.

(C) Any Council member may submit a written request to the Secretary to review any determination by the designated official under subparagraph (B) within 10 days of such determination. Such review shall be completed within 30 days of receipt of the request.

(D) Any affected individual who does not vote in a Council decision in accordance with this subsection may state for the record how he or she would have voted on such decision if he or she had voted.

(E) If the Council makes a decision before the Secretary has reviewed a determination under subparagraph (C), the eventual ruling may not be treated as cause for the invalidation or reconsideration by the Secretary of such decision.

(F) The Secretary, in consultation with the Councils and by not later than one year from the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, shall promulgate regulations which prohibit an affected individual from voting in accordance with subparagraph (A), and which allow for the making of determinations under subparagraphs (B) and (C).

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(8) Section 208 of title 18, United States Code, does not apply to an affected individual referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(ii) during any time in which that individual is in compliance with the regulations prescribed under paragraph (5).

SEC. 303. CONTENTS OF FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLANS 16 U.S.C. 1853

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(a) REQUIRED PROVISIONS.--Any fishery management plan which is prepared by any Council, or by the Secretary, with respect to any fishery, shall--

(1) contain the conservation and management measures, applicable to foreign fishing and fishing by vessels of the United States, which are--

(A) necessary and appropriate for the conservation and management of the fishery to prevent overfishing and rebuild overfished stocks, and to protect, restore, and promote the long-term health and stability of the fishery;

(B) described in this subsection or subsection (b), or both; and

(C) consistent with the national standards, the other provisions of this Act, regulations implementing recommendations by international organizations in which the United States participates (including but not limited to closed areas, quotas, and size limits), and any other applicable law;

(2) contain a description of the fishery, including, but not limited to, the number of vessels involved, the type and quantity of fishing gear used, the species of fish involved and their location, the cost likely to be incurred in management, actual and potential revenues from the fishery, any recreational interest in the fishery, and the nature and extent of foreign fishing and Indian treaty fishing rights, if any;

(3) assess and specify the present and probable future condition of, and the maximum sustainable yield and optimum yield from, the fishery, and include a summary of the information utilized in making such specification;

(4) assess and specify-- (A) the capacity and the extent to which fishing vessels of the United States, on an annual basis, will harvest the optimum yield specified under paragraph (3),

(B) the portion of such optimum yield which, on an annual basis, will not be harvested by fishing vessels of the United States and can be made available for foreign fishing, and

(C) the capacity and extent to which United States fish processors, on an annual basis, will process that portion of such optimum yield that will be harvested by fishing vessels of the United States;

(5) specify the pertinent data which shall be submitted to the Secretary with respect to commercial, recreational, and charter fishing in the fishery, including, but not limited to, information regarding the type and quantity of fishing gear used, catch by species in numbers of fish or weight thereof, areas in which fishing was engaged in, time of fishing, number of hauls, and the estimated processing capacity of, and the actual processing capacity utilized by, United States fish processors;

(6) consider and provide for temporary adjustments, after consultation with the Coast Guard and persons utilizing the fishery, regarding access to the fishery for vessels otherwise prevented from harvesting because of weather or other ocean conditions affecting the safe conduct of the fishery; except that the adjustment shall not adversely affect conservation efforts in other fisheries or discriminate among participants in the affected fishery;

(7) describe and identify essential fish habitat for the fishery based on the guidelines established by the Secretary under section 305(b)(1)(A), minimize to the extent practicable adverse effects on such habitat caused by fishing, and identify other actions to encourage the conservation and enhancement of such habitat;

(8) in the case of a fishery management plan that, after January 1, 1991, is submitted to the Secretary for review under section 304(a) (including any plan for which an amendment is submitted to the Secretary for such review) or is prepared by the Secretary, assess and specify the nature and extent of scientific data which is needed for effective implementation of the plan;

(9) include a fishery impact statement for the plan or amendment (in the case of a plan or amendment thereto submitted to or prepared by the Secretary after October 1, 1990) which shall assess, specify, and describe the likely effects, if any, of the conservation and management measures on--

(A) participants in the fisheries and fishing communities affected by the plan or amendment; and

(B) participants in the fisheries conducted in adjacent areas under the authority of another Council, after consultation with such Council and representatives of those participants;

(10) specify objective and measurable criteria for identifying when the fishery to which the plan applies is overfished (with an analysis of how the criteria were determined and the relationship of the criteria to the reproductive potential of stocks of fish in that fishery) and, in the case of a fishery which the Council or the Secretary has determined is approaching an overfished condition or is overfished, contain conservation and management measures to prevent overfishing or end overfishing and rebuild the fishery;

(11) establish a standardized reporting methodology to assess the amount and type of bycatch occurring in the fishery, and include conservation and management measures that, to the extent practicable and in the following priority--

(A) minimize bycatch; and

(B) minimize the mortality of bycatch which cannot be avoided;

(12) assess the type and amount of fish caught and released alive during recreational fishing under catch and release fishery management programs and the mortality of such fish, and include conservation and management measures that, to the extent practicable, minimize mortality and ensure the extended survival of such fish;

(13) include a description of the commercial, recreational, and charter fishing sectors which participate in the fishery and, to the extent practicable, quantify trends in landings of the managed fishery resource by the commercial, recreational, and charter fishing sectors; and

(14) to the extent that rebuilding plans or other conservation and management measures which reduce the overall harvest in a fishery are necessary, allocate any harvest restrictions or recovery benefits fairly and equitably among the commercial, recreational, and charter fishing sectors in the fishery.

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(b) DISCRETIONARY PROVISIONS.--Any fishery management plan which is prepared by any Council, or by the Secretary, with respect to any fishery, may--

(1) require a permit to be obtained from, and fees to be paid to, the Secretary, with respect to--

(A) any fishing vessel of the United States fishing, or wishing to fish, in the exclusive economic zone [or special areas,]* or for anadromous species or Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond such zone [or areas]*;

(B) the operator of any such vessel; or

(C) any United States fish processor who first receives fish that are subject to the plan;

(2) designate zones where, and periods when, fishing shall be limited, or shall not be permitted, or shall be permitted only by specified types of fishing vessels or with specified types and quantities of fishing gear;

(3) establish specified limitations which are necessary and appropriate for the conservation and management of the fishery on the--

(A) catch of fish (based on area, species, size, number, weight, sex, bycatch, total biomass, or other factors);

(B) sale of fish caught during commercial, recreational, or charter fishing, consistent with any applicable Federal and State safety and quality requirements; and

(C) transshipment or transportation of fish or fish products under permits issued pursuant to section 204;

(4) prohibit, limit, condition, or require the use of specified types and quantities of fishing gear, fishing vessels, or equipment for such vessels, including devices which may be required to facilitate enforcement of the provisions of this Act;

(5) incorporate (consistent with the national standards, the other provisions of this Act, and any other applicable law) the relevant fishery conservation and management measures of the coastal States nearest to the fishery;

(6) establish a limited access system for the fishery in order to achieve optimum yield if, in developing such system, the Council and the Secretary take into account--

(A) present participation in the fishery,

(B) historical fishing practices in, and dependence on, the fishery,

(C) the economics of the fishery,

(D) the capability of fishing vessels used in the fishery to engage in other fisheries,

(E) the cultural and social framework relevant to the fishery and any affected fishing communities, and

(F) any other relevant considerations;

(7) require fish processors who first receive fish that are subject to the plan to submit data (other than economic data) which are necessary for the conservation and management of the fishery;

(8) require that one or more observers be carried on board a vessel of the United States engaged in fishing for species that are subject to the plan, for the purpose of collecting data necessary for the conservation and management of the fishery; except that such a vessel shall not be required to carry an observer on board if the facilities of the vessel for the quartering of an observer, or for carrying out observer functions, are so inadequate or unsafe that the health or safety of the observer or the safe operation of the vessel would be jeopardized;

(9) assess and specify the effect which the conservation and management measures of the plan will have on the stocks of naturally spawning anadromous fish in the region;

(10) include, consistent with the other provisions of this Act, conservation and management measures that provide harvest incentives for participants within each gear group to employ fishing practices that result in lower levels of bycatch or in lower levels of the mortality of bycatch;

(11) reserve a portion of the allowable biological catch of the fishery for use in scientific research; and

(12) prescribe such other measures, requirements, or conditions and restrictions as are determined to be necessary and appropriate for the conservation and management of the fishery.

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(c) PROPOSED REGULATIONS.--Proposed regulations which the Council deems necessary or appropriate for the purposes of--

(1) implementing a fishery management plan or plan amendment shall be submitted to the Secretary simultaneously with the plan or amendment under section 304; and

(2) making modifications to regulations implementing a fishery management plan or plan amendment may be submitted to the Secretary at any time after the plan or amendment is approved under section 304.

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(d) INDIVIDUAL FISHING QUOTAS.--

(1) (A) A Council may not submit and the Secretary may not approve or implement before October 1, 2000, any fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation under this Act which creates a new individual fishing quota program.

(B) Any fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation approved by the Secretary on or after January 4, 1995, which creates any new individual fishing quota program shall be repealed and immediately returned by the Secretary to the appropriate Council and shall not be resubmitted, reapproved, or implemented during the moratorium set forth in subparagraph (A).

(2) (A) No provision of law shall be construed to limit the authority of a Council to submit and the Secretary to approve the termination or limitation, without compensation to holders of any limited access system permits, of a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation that provides for a limited access system, including an individual fishing quota program.

(B) This subsection shall not be construed to prohibit a Council from submitting, or the Secretary from approving and implementing, amendments to the North Pacific halibut and sablefish, South Atlantic wreckfish, or Mid-Atlantic surf clam and ocean (including mahogany) quahog individual fishing quota programs.

(3) An individual fishing quota or other limited access system authorization--

(A) shall be considered a permit for the purposes of sections 307, 308, and 309;

(B) may be revoked or limited at any time in accordance with this Act;

(C) shall not confer any right of compensation to the holder of such individual fishing quota or other such limited access system authorization if it is revoked or limited; and

(D) shall not create, or be construed to create, any right, title, or interest in or to any fish before the fish is harvested.

(4) (A) A Council may submit, and the Secretary may approve and implement, a program which reserves up to 25 percent of any fees collected from a fishery under section 304(d)(2) to be used, pursuant to section 1104A(a)(7) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. App. 1274(a)(7)), to issue obligations that aid in financing the--

(i) purchase of individual fishing quotas in that fishery by fishermen who fish from small vessels; and

(ii) first-time purchase of individual fishing quotas in that fishery by entry level fishermen.

(B) A Council making a submission under subparagraph (A) shall recommend criteria, consistent with the provisions of this Act, that a fisherman must meet to qualify for guarantees under clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) and the portion of funds to be allocated for guarantees under each clause.

(5) In submitting and approving any new individual fishing quota program on or after October 1, 2000, the Councils and the Secretary shall consider the report of the National Academy of Sciences required under section 108(f) of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, and any recommendations contained in such report, and shall ensure that any such program--

(A) establishes procedures and requirements for the review and revision of the terms of any such program (including any revisions that may be necessary once a national policy with respect to individual fishing quota programs is implemented), and, if appropriate, for the renewal, reallocation, or reissuance of individual fishing quotas;

(B) provides for the effective enforcement and management of any such program, including adequate observer coverage, and for fees under section 304(d)(2) to recover actual costs directly related to such enforcement and management; and

(C) provides for a fair and equitable initial allocation of individual fishing quotas, prevents any person from acquiring an excessive share of the individual fishing quotas issued, and considers the allocation of a portion of the annual harvest in the fishery for entry-level fishermen, small vessel owners, and crew members who do not hold or qualify for individual fishing quotas.

104-297, sec. 108(b), M-S Act SS 303 note

IMPLEMENTATION.--Not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this Act [P.L. 104-297], each Regional Fishery Management Council shall submit to the Secretary of Commerce amendments to each fishery management plan under its authority to comply with the amendments made in subsection (a) of this section [i.e., the P.L. 104-297 revisions to SS 303(a)(1), (5), (7), and (9), and the addition of SS 303(a)(10)-(14)].

104-297, sec. 108(i), M-S Act SS 303 note

EXISTING QUOTA PLANS.--Nothing in this Act [P.L.104-297] or the amendments made by this Act shall be construed to require a reallocation of individual fishing quotas under any individual fishing quota program approved by the Secretary before January 4, 1995.

SEC. 304. ACTION BY THE SECRETARY 16 U.S.C. 1854

104-297

(a) REVIEW OF PLANS.--

(1) Upon transmittal by the Council to the Secretary of a fishery management plan or plan amendment, the Secretary shall--

(A) immediately commence a review of the plan or amendment to determine whether it is consistent with the national standards, the other provisions of this Act, and any other applicable law; and

(B) immediately publish in the Federal Register a notice stating that the plan or amendment is available and that written information, views, or comments of interested persons on the plan or amendment may be submitted to the Secretary during the 60-day period beginning on the date the notice is published.

(2) In undertaking the review required under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall--

(A) take into account the information, views, and comments received from interested persons;

(B) consult with the Secretary of State with respect to foreign fishing; and

(C) consult with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating with respect to enforcement at sea and to fishery access adjustments referred to in section 303(a)(6).

(3) The Secretary shall approve, disapprove, or partially approve a plan or amendment within 30 days of the end of the comment period under paragraph (1) by written notice to the Council. A notice of disapproval or partial approval shall specify--

(A) the applicable law with which the plan or amendment is inconsistent;

(B) the nature of such inconsistencies; and

(C) recommendations concerning the actions that could be taken by the Council to conform such plan or amendment to the requirements of applicable law.

If the Secretary does not notify a Council within 30 days of the end of the comment period of the approval, disapproval, or partial approval of a plan or amendment, then such plan or amendment shall take effect as if approved.

(4) If the Secretary disapproves or partially approves a plan or amendment, the Council may submit a revised plan or amendment to the Secretary for review under this subsection.

(5) For purposes of this subsection and subsection (b), the term "immediately" means on or before the 5th day after the day on which a Council transmits to the Secretary a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or proposed regulation that the Council characterizes as final.

104-297

(b) REVIEW OF REGULATIONS.--

(1) Upon transmittal by the Council to the Secretary of proposed regulations prepared under section 303(c), the Secretary shall immediately initiate an evaluation of the proposed regulations to determine whether they are consistent with the fishery management plan, plan amendment, this Act and other applicable law. Within 15 days of initiating such evaluation the Secretary shall make a determination and--

(A) if that determination is affirmative, the Secretary shall publish such regulations in the Federal Register, with such technical changes as may be necessary for clarity and an explanation of those changes, for a public comment period of 15 to 60 days; or

(B) if that determination is negative, the Secretary shall notify the Council in writing of the inconsistencies and provide recommendations on revisions that would make the proposed regulations consistent with the fishery management plan, plan amendment, this Act, and other applicable law.

(2) Upon receiving a notification under paragraph (1)(B), the Council may revise the proposed regulations and submit them to the Secretary for reevaluation under paragraph (1).

(3) The Secretary shall promulgate final regulations within 30 days after the end of the comment period under paragraph (1)(A). The Secretary shall consult with the Council before making any revisions to the proposed regulations, and must publish in the Federal Register an explanation of any differences between the proposed and final regulations.

97-453, 99-659, 104-297

(c) PREPARATION AND REVIEW OF SECRETARIAL PLANS.--

(1) The Secretary may prepare a fishery management plan, with respect to any fishery, or any amendment to any such plan, in accordance with the national standards, the other provisions of this Act, and any other applicable law, if--

(A) the appropriate Council fails to develop and submit to the Secretary, after a reasonable period of time, a fishery management plan for such fishery, or any necessary amendment to such a plan, if such fishery requires conservation and management;

(B) the Secretary disapproves or partially disapproves any such plan or amendment, or disapproves a revised plan or amendment, and the Council involved fails to submit a revised or further revised plan or amendment; or

(C) the Secretary is given authority to prepare such plan or amendment under this section.

In preparing any such plan or amendment, the Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of State with respect to foreign fishing and with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating with respect to enforcement at sea. The Secretary shall also prepare such proposed regulations as he deems necessary or appropriate to carry out each plan or amendment prepared by him under this paragraph.

(2) In preparing any plan or amendment under this subsection, the Secretary shall--

(A) conduct public hearings, at appropriate times and locations in the geographical areas concerned, so as to allow interested persons an opportunity to be heard in the preparation and amendment of the plan and any regulations implementing the plan; and

(B) consult with the Secretary of State with respect to foreign fishing and with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating with respect to enforcement at sea.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) for a fishery under the authority of a Council, the Secretary may not include in any fishery management plan, or any amendment to any such plan, prepared by him, a provision establishing a limited access system, including any individual fishing quota program unless such system is first approved by a majority of the voting members, present and voting, of each appropriate Council.

(4) Whenever the Secretary prepares a fishery management plan or plan amendment under this section, the Secretary shall immediately--

(A) for a plan or amendment for a fishery under the authority of a Council, submit such plan or amendment to the appropriate Council for consideration and comment; and

(B) publish in the Federal Register a notice stating that the plan or amendment is available and that written information, views, or comments of interested persons on the plan or amendment may be submitted to the Secretary during the 60-day period beginning on the date the notice is published.

(5) Whenever a plan or amendment is submitted under paragraph (4)(A), the appropriate Council must submit its comments and recommendations, if any, regarding the plan or amendment to the Secretary before the close of the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (4)(B). After the close of such 60-day period, the Secretary, after taking into account any such comments and recommendations, as well as any views, information, or comments submitted under paragraph (4)(B), may adopt such plan or amendment.

(6) The Secretary may propose regulations in the Federal Register to implement any plan or amendment prepared by the Secretary. In the case of a plan or amendment to which paragraph (4)(A) applies, such regulations shall be submitted to the Council with such plan or amendment. The comment period on proposed regulations shall be 60 days, except that the Secretary may shorten the comment period on minor revisions to existing regulations.

(7) The Secretary shall promulgate final regulations within 30 days after the end of the comment period under paragraph (6). The Secretary must publish in the Federal Register an explanation of any substantive differences between the proposed and final rules. All final regulations must be consistent with the fishery management plan, with the national standards and other provisions of this Act, and with any other applicable law.

97-453, 104-297

(d) ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES.--

(1) The Secretary shall by regulation establish the level of any fees which are authorized to be charged pursuant to section 303(b)(1). The Secretary may enter into a cooperative agreement with the States concerned under which the States administer the permit system and the agreement may provide that all or part of the fees collected under the system shall accrue to the States. The level of fees charged under this subsection shall not exceed the administrative costs incurred in issuing the permits.

(2)(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Secretary is authorized and shall collect a fee to recover the actual costs directly related to the management and enforcement of any--

(i) individual fishing quota program; and

(ii) community development quota program that allocates a percentage of the total allowable catch of a fishery to such program.

(B) Such fee shall not exceed 3 percent of the ex-vessel value of fish harvested under any such program, and shall be collected at either the time of the landing, filing of a landing report, or sale of such fish during a fishing season or in the last quarter of the calendar year in which the fish is harvested.

(C) (i) Fees collected under this paragraph shall be in addition to any other fees charged under this Act and shall be deposited in the Limited Access System Administration Fund established under section 305(h)(5)(B), except that the portion of any such fees reserved under section 303(d)(4)(A) shall be deposited in the Treasury and available, subject to annual appropriations, to cover the costs of new direct loan obligations and new loan guarantee commitments as required by section 504(b)(1) of the Federal Credit Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 661c(b)(1)).

(ii) Upon application by a State, the Secretary shall transfer to such State up to 33 percent of any fee collected pursuant to subparagraph (A) under a community development quota program and deposited in the Limited Access System Administration Fund in order to reimburse such State for actual costs directly incurred in the management and enforcement of such program.

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(e) REBUILDING OVERFISHED FISHERIES.--

(1) The Secretary shall report annually to the Congress and the Councils on the status of fisheries within each Council's geographical area of authority and identify those fisheries that are overfished or are approaching a condition of being overfished. For those fisheries managed under a fishery management plan or international agreement, the status shall be determined using the criteria for overfishing specified in such plan or agreement. A fishery shall be classified as approaching a condition of being overfished if, based on trends in fishing effort, fishery resource size, and other appropriate factors, the Secretary estimates that the fishery will become overfished within two years.

(2) If the Secretary determines at any time that a fishery is overfished, the Secretary shall immediately notify the appropriate Council and request that action be taken to end overfishing in the fishery and to implement conservation and management measures to rebuild affected stocks of fish. The Secretary shall publish each notice under this paragraph in the Federal Register.

(3) Within one year of an identification under paragraph (1) or notification under paragraphs (2) or (7), the appropriate Council (or the Secretary, for fisheries under section 302(a)(3)) shall prepare a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or proposed regulations for the fishery to which the identification or notice applies--

(A) to end overfishing in the fishery and to rebuild affected stocks of fish; or

(B) to prevent overfishing from occurring in the fishery whenever such fishery is identified as approaching an overfished condition.

(4) For a fishery that is overfished, any fishery management plan, amendment, or proposed regulations prepared pursuant to paragraph (3) or paragraph (5) for such fishery shall--

(A) specify a time period for ending overfishing and rebuilding the fishery that shall--

(i) be as short as possible, taking into account the status and biology of any overfished stocks of fish, the needs of fishing communities, recommendations by international organizations in which the United States participates, and the interaction of the overfished stock of fish within the marine ecosystem; and

(ii) not exceed 10 years, except in cases where the biology of the stock of fish, other environmental conditions, or management measures under an international agreement in which the United States participates dictate otherwise;

(B) allocate both overfishing restrictions and recovery benefits fairly and equitably among sectors of the fishery; and

(C) for fisheries managed under an international agreement, reflect traditional participation in the fishery, relative to other nations, by fishermen of the United States.

(5) If, within the one-year period beginning on the date of identification or notification that a fishery is overfished, the Council does not submit to the Secretary a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or proposed regulations required by paragraph (3)(A), the Secretary shall prepare a fishery management plan or plan amendment and any accompanying regulations to stop overfishing and rebuild affected stocks of fish within 9 months under subsection (c).

(6) During the development of a fishery management plan, a plan amendment, or proposed regulations required by this subsection, the Council may request the Secretary to implement interim measures to reduce overfishing under section 305(c) until such measures can be replaced by such plan, amendment, or regulations. Such measures, if otherwise in compliance with the provisions of this Act, may be implemented even though they are not sufficient by themselves to stop overfishing of a fishery.

(7) The Secretary shall review any fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulations required by this subsection at routine intervals that may not exceed two years. If the Secretary finds as a result of the review that such plan, amendment, or regulations have not resulted in adequate progress toward ending overfishing and rebuilding affected fish stocks, the Secretary shall--

(A) in the case of a fishery to which section 302(a)(3) applies, immediately make revisions necessary to achieve adequate progress; or

(B) for all other fisheries, immediately notify the appropriate Council. Such notification shall recommend further conservation and management measures which the Council should consider under paragraph (3) to achieve adequate progress.

101-627, 104-297

(f) FISHERIES UNDER AUTHORITY OF MORE THAN ONE COUNCIL.--

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3)[3], if any fishery extends beyond the geographical area of authority of any one Council, the Secretary may--

(A) designate which Council shall prepare the fishery management plan for such fishery and any amendment to such plan; or

(B) may require that the plan and amendment be prepared jointly by the Councils concerned.

No jointly prepared plan or amendment may be submitted to the Secretary unless it is approved by a majority of the voting members, present and voting, of each Council concerned.

(2) The Secretary shall establish the boundaries between the geographical areas of authority of adjacent Councils.

104-297

(g) ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES.--

(1) PREPARATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN OR PLAN AMENDMENT.--The Secretary shall prepare a fishery management plan or plan amendment under subsection (c) with respect to any highly migratory species fishery to which section 302(a)(3) applies. In preparing and implementing any such plan or amendment, the Secretary shall--

(A) consult with and consider the comments and views of affected Councils, commissioners and advisory groups appointed under Acts implementing relevant international fishery agreements pertaining to highly migratory species, and the advisory panel established under section 302(g);

(B) establish an advisory panel under section 302(g) for each fishery management plan to be prepared under this paragraph;

(C) evaluate the likely effects, if any, of conservation and management measures on participants in the affected fisheries and minimize, to the extent practicable, any disadvantage to United States fishermen in relation to foreign competitors;

(D) with respect to a highly migratory species for which the United States is authorized to harvest an allocation, quota, or at a fishing mortality level under a relevant international fishery agreement, provide fishing vessels of the United States with a reasonable opportunity to harvest such allocation, quota, or at such fishing mortality level;

(E) review, on a continuing basis (and promptly whenever a recommendation pertaining to fishing for highly migratory species has been made under a relevant international fishery agreement), and revise as appropriate, the conservation and management measures included in the plan;

(F) diligently pursue, through international entities (such as the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas), comparable international fishery management measures with respect to fishing for highly migratory species; and

(G) ensure that conservation and management measures under this subsection--

(i) promote international conservation of the affected fishery;

(ii) take into consideration traditional fishing patterns of fishing vessels of the United States and the operating requirements of the fisheries;

(iii) are fair and equitable in allocating fishing privileges among United States fishermen and do not have economic allocation as the sole purpose; and

(iv) promote, to the extent practicable, implementation of scientific research programs that include the tagging and release of Atlantic highly migratory species.

(2) CERTAIN FISH EXCLUDED FROM "BYCATCH" DEFINITION.--

Notwithstanding section 3(2), fish harvested in a commercial fishery managed by the Secretary under this subsection or the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act of 1975 (16 U.S.C. 971d) that are not regulatory discards and that are tagged and released alive under a scientific tagging and release program established by the Secretary shall not be considered bycatch for purposes of this Act.

104-297

(h) REPEAL OR REVOCATION OF A FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLAN.--The Secretary may repeal or revoke a fishery management plan for a fishery under the authority of a Council only if the Council approves the repeal or revocation by a three-quarters majority of the voting members of the Council.

101-627, sec. 108(k), M-S Act SS 304 note

Interim Management of Highly Migratory Species Fisheries.--Notwithstanding the amendments made by subsections (a) and (g) [of section 108 of Pub. L. 101-627], any fishery management plan or amendment which--

(1) addresses a highly migratory species fishery to which section 304(f)(3) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (as amended by this Act [101-627]) applies,

(2) was prepared by one or more Regional Fishery Management Councils, and

(3) was in force and effect on January 1, 1990,

shall remain in force and effect until superseded by a fishery management plan prepared by the Secretary, and regulations implementing that plan.

104-297, sec. 109(d), M-S Act SS 304 note

DELAY OF FEES.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall not begin the collection of fees under section 304(d)(2) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act [104-297], in the surf clam and ocean (including mahogany) quahog fishery or in the wreckfish fishery until after January 1, 2000.

104-297, sec. 109(h), M-S Act SS 304 note

COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ATLANTIC PELAGIC LONGLINE FISHERY.--(1) The Secretary of Commerce shall--

(A) establish an advisory panel under section 302(g)(4) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act, for pelagic longline fishing vessels that participate in fisheries for Atlantic highly migratory species;

(B) conduct surveys and workshops with affected fishery participants to provide information and identify options for future management programs;

(C) to the extent practicable and necessary for the evaluation of options for a comprehensive management system, recover vessel production records; and

(D) complete by January 1, 1998, a comprehensive study on the feasibility of implementing a comprehensive management system for pelagic longline fishing vessels that participate in fisheries for Atlantic highly migratory species, including, but not limited to, individual fishing quota programs and other limited access systems.

(2) Based on the study under paragraph (1)(D) and consistent with the requirements of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.), in cooperation with affected participants in the fishery, the United States Commissioners on the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, and the advisory panel established under paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary of Commerce may, after October 1, 1998, implement a comprehensive management system pursuant to section 304 of such Act (16 U.S.C. 1854) for pelagic longline fishing vessels that participate in fisheries for Atlantic highly migratory species. Such a system may not implement an individual fishing quota program until after October 1, 2000.

104-297, sec. 109(j), M-S Act 304 note

AMERICAN LOBSTER FISHERY.--Section 304(h) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act [Public Law 104-297], shall not apply to the American Lobster Fishery Management Plan.

SEC. 305. OTHER REQUIREMENTS AND AUTHORITY 16 U.S.C. 1855

104-297

(a) GEAR EVALUATION AND NOTIFICATION OF ENTRY.--

(1) Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register, after notice and an opportunity for public comment, a list of all fisheries--

(A) under the authority of each Council and all fishing gear used in such fisheries, based on information submitted by the Councils under section 303(a); and

(B) to which section 302(a)(3) applies and all fishing gear used in such fisheries.

(2) The Secretary shall include with such list guidelines for determining when fishing gear or a fishery is sufficiently different from those listed as to require notification under paragraph (3).

(3) Effective 180 days after the publication of such list, no person or vessel may employ fishing gear or engage in a fishery not included on such list without giving 90 days advance written notice to the appropriate Council, or the Secretary with respect to a fishery to which section 302(a)(3) applies. A signed return receipt shall serve as adequate evidence of such notice and as the date upon which the 90-day period begins.

(4) A Council may submit to the Secretary any proposed changes to such list or such guidelines the Council deems appropriate. The Secretary shall publish a revised list, after notice and an opportunity for public comment, upon receiving any such proposed changes from a Council.

(5) A Council may request the Secretary to promulgate emergency regulations under subsection (c) to prohibit any persons or vessels from using an unlisted fishing gear or engaging in an unlisted fishery if the appropriate Council, or the Secretary for fisheries to which section 302(a)(3) applies, determines that such unlisted gear or unlisted fishery would compromise the effectiveness of conservation and management efforts under this Act.

(6) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to permit a person or vessel to engage in fishing or employ fishing gear when such fishing or gear is prohibited or restricted by regulation under a fishery management plan or plan amendment, or under other applicable law.

104-297

(b) FISH HABITAT.--

(1) (A) The Secretary shall, within 6 months of the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, establish by regulation guidelines to assist the Councils in the description and identification of essential fish habitat in fishery management plans (including adverse impacts on such habitat) and in the consideration of actions to ensure the conservation and enhancement of such habitat. The Secretary shall set forth a schedule for the amendment of fishery management plans to include the identification of essential fish habitat and for the review and updating of such identifications based on new scientific evidence or other relevant information.

(B) The Secretary, in consultation with participants in the fishery, shall provide each Council with recommendations and information regarding each fishery under that Council's authority to assist it in the identification of essential fish habitat, the adverse impacts on that habitat, and the actions that should be considered to ensure the conservation and enhancement of that habitat.

(C) The Secretary shall review programs administered by the Department of Commerce and ensure that any relevant programs further the conservation and enhancement of essential fish habitat.

(D) The Secretary shall coordinate with and provide information to other Federal agencies to further the conservation and enhancement of essential fish habitat.

(2) Each Federal agency shall consult with the Secretary with respect to any action authorized, funded, or undertaken, or proposed to be authorized, funded, or undertaken, by such agency that may adversely affect any essential fish habitat identified under this Act.

(3) Each Council--

(A) may comment on and make recommendations to the Secretary and any Federal or State agency concerning any activity authorized, funded, or undertaken, or proposed to be authorized, funded, or undertaken, by any Federal or State agency that, in the view of the Council, may affect the habitat, including essential fish habitat, of a fishery resource under its authority; and

(B) shall comment on and make recommendations to the Secretary and any Federal or State agency concerning any such activity that, in the view of the Council, is likely to substantially affect the habitat, including essential fish habitat, of an anadromous fishery resource under its authority.

(4) (A) If the Secretary receives information from a Council or Federal or State agency or determines from other sources that an action authorized, funded, or undertaken, or proposed to be authorized, funded, or undertaken, by any State or Federal agency would adversely affect any essential fish habitat identified under this Act, the Secretary shall recommend to such agency measures that can be taken by such agency to conserve such habitat.

(B) Within 30 days after receiving a recommendation under subparagraph (A), a Federal agency shall provide a detailed response in writing to any Council commenting under paragraph (3) and the Secretary regarding the matter. The response shall include a description of measures proposed by the agency for avoiding, mitigating, or offsetting the impact of the activity on such habitat. In the case of a response that is inconsistent with the recommendations of the Secretary, the Federal agency shall explain its reasons for not following the recommendations.

97-453, 101-627, 104-297

(c) EMERGENCY ACTIONS AND INTERIM MEASURES.--

(1) If the Secretary finds that an emergency or overfishing exists or that interim measures are needed to reduce overfishing for any fishery, he may promulgate emergency[4] regulations or interim measures necessary to address the emergency or overfishing, without regard to whether a fishery management plan exists for such fishery.

(2) If a Council finds that an emergency or overfishing exists or that interim measures are needed to reduce overfishing for any fishery within its jurisdiction, whether or not a fishery management plan exists for such fishery--

(A) the Secretary shall promulgate emergency4 regulations or interim measures under paragraph (1) to address the emergency or overfishing if the Council, by unanimous vote of the members who are voting members, requests the taking of such actions; and

(B) the Secretary may promulgate emergency4 regulations or interim measures under paragraph (1) to address the emergency or overfishing if the Council, by less than a unanimous vote, requests the taking of such action.

(3) Any emergency regulation or interim measure which changes any existing fishery management plan or amendment shall be treated as an amendment to such plan for the period in which such regulation is in effect. Any emergency regulation or interim measure promulgated under this subsection--

(A) shall be published in the Federal Register together with the reasons therefor;

(B) shall, except as provided in subparagraph (C), remain in effect for not more than 180 days after the date of publication, and may be extended by publication in the Federal Register for one additional period of not more than 180 days, provided the public has had an opportunity to comment on the emergency regulation or interim measure, and, in the case of a Council recommendation for emergency regulations or interim measures, the Council is actively preparing a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or proposed regulations to address the emergency or overfishing on a permanent basis;

(C) that responds to a public health emergency or an oil spill may remain in effect until the circumstances that created the emergency no longer exist, Provided, That the public has an opportunity to comment after the regulation is published, and, in the case of a public health emergency, the Secretary of Health and Human Services concurs with the Secretary's action; and

(D) may be terminated by the Secretary at an earlier date by publication in the Federal Register of a notice of termination, except for emergency regulations or interim measures[5] promulgated under paragraph (2) in which case such early termination may be made only upon the agreement of the Secretary and the Council concerned.

101-627

(d) RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SECRETARY.--The Secretary shall have general responsibility to carry out any fishery management plan or amendment approved or prepared by him, in accordance with the provisions of this Act. The Secretary may promulgate such regulations, in accordance with section 553 of title 5, United States Code, as may be necessary to discharge such responsibility or to carry out any other provision of this Act.

97-453, 101-627, 104-297

(e) EFFECT OF CERTAIN LAWS ON CERTAIN TIME REQUIREMENTS.--

The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), and Executive Order Numbered 12866, dated September 30, 1993, shall be complied with within the time limitations specified in subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 304 as they apply to the functions of the Secretary under such provisions.

101-627

(f) JUDICIAL REVIEW.--

(1) Regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this Act and actions described in paragraph (2) shall be subject to judicial review to the extent authorized by, and in accordance with, chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code, if a petition for such review is filed within 30 days after the date on which the regulations are promulgated or the action is published in the Federal Register, as applicable; except that--

(A) section 705 of such title is not applicable, and

(B) the appropriate court shall only set aside any such regulation or action on a ground specified in section 706(2)(A), (B), (C), or (D) of such title.

(2) The actions referred to in paragraph (1) are actions that are taken by the Secretary under regulations which implement a fishery management plan, including but not limited to actions that establish the date of closure of a fishery to commercial or recreational fishing.

(3) (A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall file a response to any petition filed in accordance with paragraph (1), not later than 45 days after the date the Secretary is served with that petition, except that the appropriate court may extend the period for filing such a response upon a showing by the Secretary of good cause for that extension.

(B) A response of the Secretary under this paragraph shall include a copy of the administrative record for the regulations that are the subject of the petition.

(4) Upon a motion by the person who files a petition under this subsection, the appropriate court shall assign the matter for hearing at the earliest possible date and shall expedite the matter in every possible way.

104-297

(g) NEGOTIATED CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT MEASURES.--

(1)(A) In accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary pursuant to this paragraph, a Council may establish a fishery negotiation panel to assist in the development of specific conservation and management measures for a fishery under its authority. The Secretary may establish a fishery negotiation panel to assist in the development of specific conservation and management measures required for a fishery under section 304(e)(5), for a fishery for which the Secretary has authority under section 304(g), or for any other fishery with the approval of the appropriate Council.

(B) No later than 180 days after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations establishing procedures, developed in cooperation with the Administrative Conference of the United States, for the establishment and operation of fishery negotiation panels. Such procedures shall be comparable to the procedures for negotiated rulemaking established by subchapter III of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code.

(2) If a negotiation panel submits a report, such report shall specify all the areas where consensus was reached by the panel, including, if appropriate, proposed conservation and management measures, as well as any other information submitted by members of the negotiation panel. Upon receipt, the Secretary shall publish such report in the Federal Register for public comment.

(3) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require either a Council or the Secretary, whichever is appropriate, to use all or any portion of a report from a negotiation panel established under this subsection in the development of specific conservation and management measures for the fishery for which the panel was established.

104-297

(h) CENTRAL REGISTRY SYSTEM FOR LIMITED ACCESS SYSTEM PERMITS.--

(1) Within 6 months after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall establish an exclusive central registry system (which may be administered on a regional basis) for limited access system permits established under section 303(b)(6) or other Federal law, including individual fishing quotas, which shall provide for the registration of title to, and interests in, such permits, as well as for procedures for changes in the registration of title to such permits upon the occurrence of involuntary transfers, judicial or nonjudicial foreclosure of interests, enforcement of judgments thereon, and related matters deemed appropriate by the Secretary. Such registry system shall--

(A) provide a mechanism for filing notice of a nonjudicial foreclosure or enforcement of a judgment by which the holder of a senior security interest acquires or conveys ownership of a permit, and in the event of a nonjudicial foreclosure, by which the interests of the holders of junior security interests are released when the permit is transferred;

(B) provide for public access to the information filed under such system, notwithstanding section 402(b); and

(C) provide such notice and other requirements of applicable law that the Secretary deems necessary for an effective registry system.

(2) The Secretary shall promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this subsection, after consulting with the Councils and providing an opportunity for public comment. The Secretary is authorized to contract with non-Federal entities to administer the central registry system.

(3) To be effective and perfected against any person except the transferor, its heirs and devisees, and persons having actual notice thereof, all security interests, and all sales and other transfers of permits described in paragraph (1), shall be registered in compliance with the regulations promulgated under paragraph (2). Such registration shall constitute the exclusive means of perfection of title to, and security interests in, such permits, except for Federal tax liens thereon, which shall be perfected exclusively in accordance with the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.). The Secretary shall notify both the buyer and seller of a permit if a lien has been filed by the Secretary of the Treasury against the permit before collecting any transfer fee under paragraph (5) of this subsection.

(4) The priority of security interests shall be determined in order of filing, the first filed having the highest priority. A validly-filed security interest shall remain valid and perfected notwithstanding a change in residence or place of business of the owner of record. For the purposes of this subsection, "security interest" shall include security interests, assignments, liens and other encumbrances of whatever kind.

(5) (A) Notwithstanding section 304(d)(1), the Secretary shall collect a reasonable fee of not more than one-half of one percent of the value of a limited access system permit upon registration of the title to such permit with the central registry system and upon the transfer of such registered title. Any such fee collected shall be deposited in the Limited Access System Administration Fund established under subparagraph (B).

(B) There is established in the Treasury a Limited Access System Administration Fund. The Fund shall be available, without appropriation or fiscal year limitation, only to the Secretary for the purposes of--

(i) administering the central registry system; and

(ii) administering and implementing this Act in the fishery in which the fees were collected. Sums in the Fund that are not currently needed for these purposes shall be kept on deposit or invested in obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States.

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(i) ALASKA AND WESTERN PACIFIC COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.--

(1) (A) The North Pacific Council and the Secretary shall establish a western Alaska community development quota program under which a percentage of the total allowable catch of any Bering Sea fishery is allocated to the program.

(B) To be eligible to participate in the western Alaska community development quota program under subparagraph (A) a community shall--

(i) be located within 50 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured along the Bering Sea coast from the Bering Strait to the western most of the Aleutian Islands, or on an island within the Bering Sea;

(ii) not be located on the Gulf of Alaska coast of the north Pacific Ocean;

(iii) meet criteria developed by the Governor of Alaska, approved by the Secretary, and published in the Federal Register;

(iv) be certified by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) to be a Native village;

(v) consist of residents who conduct more than one-half of their current commercial or subsistence fishing effort in the waters of the Bering Sea or waters surrounding the Aleutian Islands; and

(vi) not have previously developed harvesting or processing capability sufficient to support substantial participation in the groundfish fisheries in the Bering Sea, unless the community can show that the benefits from an approved Community Development Plan would be the only way for the community to realize a return from previous investments.

(C) (i) Prior to October 1, 2001, the North Pacific Council may not submit to the Secretary any fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation that allocates to the western Alaska community development quota program a percentage of the total allowable catch of any Bering Sea fishery for which, prior to October 1, 1995, the Council had not approved a percentage of the total allowable catch for allocation to such community development quota program. The expiration of any plan, amendment, or regulation that meets the requirements of clause (ii) prior to October 1, 2001, shall not be construed to prohibit the Council from submitting a revision or extension of such plan, amendment, or regulation to the Secretary if such revision or extension complies with the other requirements of this paragraph.

(ii) With respect to a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation for a Bering Sea fishery that--

(I) allocates to the western Alaska community development quota program a percentage of the total allowable catch of such fishery; and

(II) was approved by the North Pacific Council prior to October 1, 1995; the Secretary shall, except as provided in clause (iii) and after approval of such plan, amendment, or regulation under section 304, allocate to the program the percentage of the total allowable catch described in such plan, amendment, or regulation. Prior to October 1, 2001, the percentage submitted by the Council and approved by the Secretary for any such plan, amendment, or regulation shall be no greater than the percentage approved by the Council for such fishery prior to October 1, 1995.

(iii) The Secretary shall phase in the percentage for community development quotas approved in 1995 by the North Pacific Council for the Bering Sea crab fisheries as follows:

(I) 3.5 percent of the total allowable catch of each such fishery for 1998 shall be allocated to the western Alaska community development quota program;

(II) 5 percent of the total allowable catch of each such fishery for 1999 shall be allocated to the western Alaska community development quota program; and

(III) 7.5 percent of the total allowable catch of each such fishery for 2000 and thereafter shall be allocated to the western Alaska community development quota program, unless the North Pacific Council submits and the Secretary approves a percentage that is no greater than 7.5 percent of the total allowable catch of each such fishery for 2001 or the North Pacific Council submits and the Secretary approves any other percentage on or after October 1, 2001.

(D) This paragraph shall not be construed to require the North Pacific Council to resubmit, or the Secretary to reapprove, any fishery management plan or plan amendment approved by the North Pacific Council prior to October 1, 1995, that includes a community development quota program, or any regulations to implement such plan or amendment.

(2) (A) The Western Pacific Council and the Secretary may establish a western Pacific community development program for any fishery under the authority of such Council in order to provide access to such fishery for western Pacific communities that participate in the program.

(B) To be eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development program, a community shall--

(i) be located within the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Area;

(ii) meet criteria developed by the Western Pacific Council, approved by the Secretary and published in the Federal Register;

(iii) consist of community residents who are descended from the aboriginal people indigenous to the area who conducted commercial or subsistence fishing using traditional fishing practices in the waters of the Western Pacific region;

(iv) not have previously developed harvesting or processing capability sufficient to support substantial participation in fisheries in the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Area; and

(v) develop and submit a Community Development Plan to the Western Pacific Council and the Secretary.

(C) In developing the criteria for eligible communities under subparagraph (B)(ii), the Western Pacific Council shall base such criteria on traditional fishing practices in or dependence on the fishery, the cultural and social framework relevant to the fishery, and economic barriers to access to the fishery.

(D) For the purposes of this subsection "Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Area" means the area under the jurisdiction of the Western Pacific Council, or an island within such area.

(E) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the Western Pacific Council shall take into account traditional indigenous fishing practices in preparing any fishery management plan.

(3) The Secretary shall deduct from any fees collected from a community development quota program under section 304(d)(2) the costs incurred by participants in the program for observer and reporting requirements which are in addition to observer and reporting requirements of other participants in the fishery in which the allocation to such program has been made.

(4) After the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the North Pacific Council and Western Pacific Council may not submit to the Secretary a community development quota program that is not in compliance with this subsection.

104-297, sec. 110(e), M-S Act SS 305 note

REGISTRY TRANSITION.--Security interests on permits described under section 305(h)(1) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act [104-297], that are effective and perfected by otherwise applicable law on the date of the final regulations implementing section 305(h) shall remain effective and perfected if, within 120 days after such date, the secured party submits evidence satisfactory to the Secretary of Commerce and in compliance with such regulations of the perfection of such security.

104-297, sec. 111(b), M-S Act SS 305 note

WESTERN PACIFIC DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS.--

(1) The Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the Interior are authorized to make direct grants to eligible western Pacific communities, as recommended by the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council, for the purpose of establishing not less than three and not more than five fishery demonstration projects to foster and promote traditional indigenous fishing practices. The total amount of grants awarded under this subsection shall not exceed $500,000 in each fiscal year.

(2) Demonstration projects funded pursuant to this subsection shall foster and promote the involvement of western Pacific communities in western Pacific fisheries and may--

(A) identify and apply traditional indigenous fishing practices;

(B) develop or enhance western Pacific community-based fishing opportunities; and

(C) involve research, community education, or the acquisition of materials and equipment necessary to carry out any such demonstration project.

(3)(A) The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, shall establish an advisory panel under section 302(g) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1852(g)) to evaluate, determine the relative merits of, and annually rank applications for such grants. The panel shall consist of not more than 8 individuals who are knowledgeable or experienced in traditional indigenous fishery practices of western Pacific communities and who are not members or employees of the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council.

(B) If the Secretary of Commerce or the Secretary of the Interior awards a grant for a demonstration project not in accordance with the rank given to such project by the advisory panel, the Secretary shall provide a detailed written explanation of the reasons therefor.

(4) The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council shall, with the assistance of such advisory panel, submit an annual report to the Congress assessing the status and progress of demonstration projects carried out under this subsection.

(5) Appropriate Federal agencies may provide technical assistance to western Pacific community-based entities to assist in carrying out demonstration projects under this subsection.

(6) For the purposes of this subsection, "western Pacific community" shall mean a community eligible to participate under section 305(i)(2)(B) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act.

SEC. 306. STATE JURISDICTION 16 U.S.C. 1856

97-453, 98-623

(a) IN GENERAL.--

(1) Except as provided in subsection (b), nothing in this Act shall be construed as extending or diminishing the jurisdiction or authority of any State within its boundaries.

(2) For the purposes of this Act, except as provided in subsection (b), the jurisdiction and authority of a State shall extend

(A) to any pocket of waters that is adjacent to the State and totally enclosed by lines delimiting the territorial sea of the United States pursuant to the Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone or any successor convention to which the United States is a party;

(B) with respect to the body of water commonly known as Nantucket Sound, to the pocket of water west of the seventieth meridian west of Greenwich; and

(C) to the waters of southeastern Alaska (for the purpose of regulating fishing for other than any species of crab) that are--

(i) north of the line representing the international boundary at Dixon Entrance and the westward extension of that line; east of 138 degrees west longitude; and not more than three nautical miles seaward from the coast, from the lines extending from headland to headland across all bays, inlets, straits, passes, sounds, and entrances, and from any island or group of islands, including the islands of the Alexander Archipelago (except Forrester Island); or

(ii) between the islands referred to in clause (i) (except Forrester Island) and the mainland.

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(3) A State may regulate a fishing vessel outside the boundaries of the State in the following circumstances:

(A) The fishing vessel is registered under the law of that State, and (i) there is no fishery management plan or other applicable Federal fishing regulations for the fishery in which the vessel is operating; or (ii) the State's laws and regulations are consistent with the fishery management plan and applicable Federal fishing regulations for the fishery in which the vessel is operating.

(B) The fishery management plan for the fishery in which the fishing vessel is operating delegates management of the fishery to a State and the State's laws and regulations are consistent with such fishery management plan. If at any time the Secretary determines that a State law or regulation applicable to a fishing vessel under this circumstance is not consistent with the fishery management plan, the Secretary shall promptly notify the State and the appropriate Council of such determination and provide an opportunity for the State to correct any inconsistencies identified in the notification. If, after notice and opportunity for corrective action, the State does not correct the inconsistencies identified by the Secretary, the authority granted to the State under this subparagraph shall not apply until the Secretary and the appropriate Council find that the State has corrected the inconsistencies. For a fishery for which there was a fishery management plan in place on August 1, 1996 that did not delegate management of the fishery to a State as of that date, the authority provided by this subparagraph applies only if the Council approves the delegation of management of the fishery to the State by a three-quarters majority vote of the voting members of the Council.

(C) The fishing vessel is not registered under the law of the State of Alaska and is operating in a fishery in the exclusive economic zone off Alaska for which there was no fishery management plan in place on August 1, 1996, and the Secretary and the North Pacific Council find that there is a legitimate interest of the State of Alaska in the conservation and management of such fishery. The authority provided under this subparagraph shall terminate when a fishery management plan under this Act is approved and implemented for such fishery.

99-659, 104-297

(b) EXCEPTION.--

(1) If the Secretary finds, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5, United States Code, that--

(A) the fishing in a fishery, which is covered by a fishery management plan implemented under this Act, is engaged in predominately within the exclusive economic zone and beyond such zone; and

(B) any State has taken any action, or omitted to take any action, the results of which will substantially and adversely affect the carrying out of such fishery management plan;

the Secretary shall promptly notify such State and the appropriate Council of such finding and of his intention to regulate the applicable fishery within the boundaries of such State (other than its internal waters), pursuant to such fishery management plan and the regulations promulgated to implement such plan.

(2) If the Secretary, pursuant to this subsection, assumes responsibility for the regulation of any fishery, the State involved may at any time thereafter apply to the Secretary for reinstatement of its authority over such fishery. If the Secretary finds that the reasons for which he assumed such regulation no longer prevail, he shall promptly terminate such regulation.

(3) If the State involved requests that a hearing be held pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary shall conduct such hearing prior to taking any action under paragraph (1).

97-191, 101-627, 104-297

(c) EXCEPTION REGARDING FOREIGN FISH PROCESSING IN INTERNAL WATERS.--

(1) A foreign fishing vessel may engage in fish processing within the internal waters of a State if, and only if--

(A) the vessel is qualified for purposes of this paragraph pursuant to paragraph (4)(C) or has received a permit under section 204(d);

(B) the owner or operator of the vessel applies to the Governor of the State for, and (subject to paragraph (2)) is granted, permission for the vessel to engage in such processing and the application specifies the species to be processed; and

(C) the owner or operator of the vessel submits reports on the tonnage of fish received from vessels of the United States and the locations from which such fish were harvested, in accordance with such procedures as the Secretary by regulation shall prescribe.

(2) The Governor of a State may not grant permission for a foreign fishing vessel to engage in fish processing under paragraph (1)--

(A) for a fishery which occurs in the waters of more than one State or in the exclusive economic zone, except after--

(i) consulting with the appropriate Council and Marine Fisheries Commission, and

(ii) considering any comments received from the Governor of any other State where the fishery occurs; and

(B) if the Governor determines that fish processors within the State have adequate capacity, and will utilize such capacity, to process all of the United States harvested fish from the fishery concerned that are landed in the State.

(3) Nothing in this subsection may be construed as relieving a foreign fishing vessel from the duty to comply with all applicable Federal and State laws while operating within the internal waters of a State incident to permission obtained under paragraph (1)(B).

(4) For purposes of this subsection--

(A) The term "fish processing" includes, in addition to processing, the performance of any other activity relating to fishing, including, but not limited to, preparation, supply, storage, refrigeration, or transportation.

(B) The phrase "internal waters of a State" means all waters within the boundaries of a State except those seaward of the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured.

(C) A foreign fishing vessel shall be treated as qualified for purposes of paragraph (1) if the foreign nation under which it is flagged will be a party to (i) a governing international fishery agreement or (ii) a treaty described in section 201(b) of this Act (16 U.S.C. 1821(b)) during the time the vessel will engage in the fish processing for which permission is sought under paragraph (1)(B).

104-297, sec. 112(d), M-S Act SS 306 note

INTERIM AUTHORITY FOR DUNGENESS CRAB.--

(1) Subject to the provisions of this subsection and notwithstanding section 306(a) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1856(a)), the States of Washington, Oregon, and California may each enforce State laws and regulations governing fish harvesting and processing against any vessel operating in the exclusive economic zone off each respective State in a fishery for Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) for which there is no fishery management plan implemented under the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.).

(2) Any law or regulation promulgated under this subsection shall apply equally to vessels operating in the exclusive economic zone and adjacent State waters and shall be limited to--

(A) establishment of season opening and closing dates, including presoak dates for crab pots;

(B) setting of minimum sizes and crab meat recovery rates;

(C) restrictions on the retention of crab of a certain sex; and

(D) closure of areas or pot limitations to meet the harvest requirements arising under the jurisdiction of United States v. Washington, subproceeding 89-3.

(3) With respect to the States of Washington, Oregon, and California--

(A) any State law limiting entry to a fishery subject to regulation under this subsection may not be enforced against a vessel that is operating in the exclusive economic zone off that State and is not registered under the law of that State, if the vessel is otherwise legally fishing in the exclusive economic zone, except that State laws regulating landings may be enforced; and

(B) no vessel may harvest or process fish which is subject to regulation under this subsection unless under an appropriate State permit or pursuant to a Federal court order.

(4) The authority provided under this subsection to regulate the Dungeness crab fishery shall terminate on October 1, 1999, or when a fishery management plan is implemented under the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) for such fishery, whichever date is earlier.

(5) Nothing in this subsection shall reduce the authority of any State, as such authority existed on July 1, 1996, to regulate fishing, fish processing, or landing of fish.

(6)(A) It is the sense of Congress that the Pacific Fishery Management Council, at the earliest practicable date, should develop and submit to the Secretary fishery management plans for shellfish fisheries conducted in the geographic area of authority of the Council, especially Dungeness crab, which are not subject to a fishery management plan on the date of enactment of this Act.

(B) Not later than December 1, 1997, the Pacific Fishery Management Council shall provide a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives describing the progress in developing the fishery management plans referred to in subparagraph (A) and any impediments to such progress.

SEC. 307. PROHIBITED ACTS 16 U.S.C. 1857

It is unlawful--

99-659, 101-224, 101-627, 102-251, 104-297

(1) for any person--

(A) to violate any provision of this Act or any regulation or permit issued pursuant to this Act;

(B) to use any fishing vessel to engage in fishing after the revocation, or during the period of suspension, of an applicable permit issued pursuant to this Act;

(C) to violate any provision of, or regulation under, an applicable governing international fishery agreement entered into pursuant to section 201(c);

(D) to refuse to permit any officer authorized to enforce the provisions of this Act (as provided for in section 311) to board a fishing vessel subject to such person's control for the purposes of conducting any search or inspection in connection with the enforcement of this Act or any regulation, permit, or agreement referred to in subparagraph (A) or (C);

(E) to forcibly assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, or interfere with any such authorized officer in the conduct of any search or inspection described in subparagraph (D);

(F) to resist a lawful arrest for any act prohibited by this section;

(G) to ship, transport, offer for sale, sell, purchase, import, export, or have custody, control, or possession of, any fish taken or retained in violation of this Act or any regulation, permit, or agreement referred to in subparagraph (A) or (C);

(H) to interfere with, delay, or prevent, by any means, the apprehension or arrest of another person, knowing that such other person has committed any act prohibited by this section;

(I) to knowingly and willfully submit to a Council, the Secretary, or the Governor of a State false information (including, but not limited to, false information regarding the capacity and extent to which a United States fish processor, on an annual basis, will process a portion of the optimum yield of a fishery that will be harvested by fishing vessels of the United States) regarding any matter that the Council, Secretary, or Governor is considering in the course of carrying out this Act;

(J) to ship, transport, offer for sale, sell, or purchase, in interstate or foreign commerce, any whole live lobster of the species Homarus americanus, that--

(i) is smaller than the minimum possession size in effect at the time under the American Lobster Fishery Management Plan, as implemented by regulations published in part 649 of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor to that plan implemented under this title, or in the absence of any such plan, is smaller than the minimum possession size in effect at the time under a coastal fishery management plan for American lobster adopted by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (16 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.);

(ii) is bearing eggs attached to its abdominal appendages; or

(iii) bears evidence of the forcible removal of extruded eggs from its abdominal appendages;

(K) to to [sic] steal or attempt to steal or to negligently and without authorization remove, damage, or tamper with--

(i) fishing gear owned by another person, which is located in the exclusive economic zone [or special areas]*, or

(ii) fish contained in such fishing gear;

(L) to forcibly assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, sexually harass, bribe, or interfere with any observer on a vessel under this Act, or any data collector employed by the National Marine Fisheries Service or under contract to any person to carry out responsibilities under this Act;

(M) to engage in large-scale driftnet fishing that is subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, including use of a fishing vessel of the United States to engage in such fishing beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation;

(N) to strip pollock of its roe and discard the flesh of the pollock; or

(O) to knowingly and willfully fail to disclose, or to falsely disclose, any financial interest as required under section 302(j), or to knowingly vote on a Council decision in violation of section 302(j)(7)(A).

97-191, 97-453, 102-251, 104-297

(2) for any vessel other than a vessel of the United States, and for the owner or operator of any vessel other than a vessel of the United States, to engage--

(A) in fishing within the boundaries of any State, except--

(i) recreational fishing permitted under section 201(i);

(ii) fish processing permitted under section 306(c); or

(iii) transshipment at sea of fish or fish products within the boundaries of any State in accordance with a permit approved under section 204(d);

(B) in fishing, except recreational fishing permitted under section 201(i), within the exclusive economic zone, or for any anadromous species or Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond such zone [or areas]*, unless such fishing is authorized by, and conducted in accordance with, a valid and applicable permit issued pursuant to section 204(b), (c) or (d); or

(C) except as permitted under section 306(c), in fish processing (as defined in paragraph (4)(A) of such section) within the internal waters of a State (as defined in paragraph (4)(B) of such section);

95-354, 101-627, 102-251, 104-297, 104-297

(3) for any vessel of the United States, and for the owner or operator of any vessel of the United States, to transfer at sea directly or indirectly, or attempt to so transfer at sea, any United States harvested fish to any foreign fishing vessel, while such foreign vessel is within the exclusive economic zone or within the boundaries of any State except to the extent that the foreign fishing vessel has been permitted under section 204(d) or section 306(c) to receive such fish;

100-629, 102-251, 104-297

(4) for any fishing vessel other than a vessel of the United States to operate, and for the owner or operator of a fishing vessel other than a vessel of the United States to operate such vessel, in the exclusive economic zone or within the boundaries of any State [or special areas]*, if--

(A) all fishing gear on the vessel is not stored below deck or in an area where it is not normally used, and not readily available, for fishing; or

(B) all fishing gear on the vessel which is not so stored is not secured and covered so as to render it unusable for fishing;

unless such vessel is authorized to engage in fishing in the area in which the vessel is operating; and

101-627

(5) for any vessel of the United States, and for the owner or operator of any vessel of the United States, to engage in fishing in the waters of a foreign nation in a manner that violates an international fishery agreement between that nation and the United States that has been subject to Congressional oversight in the manner described in section 203, or any regulations issued to implement such an agreement; except that the binding provisions of such agreement and implementing regulations shall have been published in the Federal Register prior to such violation.

SEC. 308. CIVIL PENALTIES AND PERMIT SANCTIONS 16 U.S.C. 1858

101-627, 104-297

(a) ASSESSMENT OF PENALTY.--Any person who is found by the Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5, United States Code, to have committed an act prohibited by section 307 shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty. The amount of the civil penalty shall not exceed $100,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate offense. The amount of such civil penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary, or his designee, by written notice. In determining the amount of such penalty, the Secretary shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, and such other matters as justice may require. In assessing such penalty the Secretary may also consider any information provided by the violator relating to the ability of the violator to pay, Provided, That the information is served on the Secretary at least 30 days prior to an administrative hearing.

99-659, 104-297

(b) REVIEW OF CIVIL PENALTY.--Any person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under subsection (a) or against whom a permit sanction is imposed under subsection (g) (other than a permit suspension for nonpayment of penalty or fine) may obtain review thereof in the United States district court for the appropriate district by filing a complaint against the Secretary in such court within 30 days from the date of such order. The Secretary shall promptly file in such court a certified copy of the record upon which such violation was found or such penalty imposed, as provided in section 2112 of title 28, United States Code. The findings and order of the Secretary shall be set aside by such court if they are not found to be supported by substantial evidence, as provided in section 706(2) of title 5, United States Code.

(c) ACTION UPON FAILURE TO PAY ASSESSMENT.--If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become a final and unappealable order, or after the appropriate court has entered final judgment in favor of the Secretary, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United States, who shall recover the amount assessed in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of the final order imposing the civil penalty shall not be subject to review.

99-659

(d) IN REM JURISDICTION.--A fishing vessel (including its fishing gear, furniture, appurtenances, stores, and cargo) used in the commission of an act prohibited by section 307 shall be liable in rem for any civil penalty assessed for such violation under section 308 and may be proceeded against in any district court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof. Such penalty shall constitute a maritime lien on such vessel which may be recovered in an action in rem in the district court of the United States having jurisdiction over the vessel.

99-659

(e) COMPROMISE OR OTHER ACTION BY SECRETARY.--The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which is subject to imposition or which has been imposed under this section.

97-453, 99-659

(f) SUBPOENAS.--For the purposes of conducting any hearing under this section, the Secretary may issue subpoenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents, and may administer oaths. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid to witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of contempt or refusal to obey a subpoena served upon any person pursuant to this subsection, the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found, resides, or transacts business, upon application by the United States and after notice to such person, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony before the Secretary or to appear and produce documents before the Secretary, or both, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

101-627, 104-297

(g) PERMIT SANCTIONS.--

(1) In any case in which (A) a vessel has been used in the commission of an act prohibited under section 307, (B) the owner or operator of a vessel or any other person who has been issued or has applied for a permit under this Act has acted in violation of section 307, (C) any amount in settlement of a civil forfeiture imposed on a vessel or other property, or any civil penalty or criminal fine imposed on a vessel or owner or operator of a vessel or any other person who has been issued or has applied for a permit under any marine resource law enforced by the Secretary has not been paid and is overdue, or (D) any payment required for observer services provided to or contracted by an owner or operator who has been issued a permit or applied for a permit under any marine resource law administered by the Secretary has not been paid and is overdue, the Secretary may--

(i) revoke any permit issued with respect to such vessel or person, with or without prejudice to the issuance of subsequent permits;

(ii) suspend such permit for a period of time considered by the Secretary to be appropriate;

(iii) deny such permit; or

(iv) impose additional conditions and restrictions on any permit issued to or applied for by such vessel or person under this Act and, with respect to foreign fishing vessels, on the approved application of the foreign nation involved and on any permit issued under that application.

(2) In imposing a sanction under this subsection, the Secretary shall take into account--

(A) the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts for which the sanction is imposed; and

(B) with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, and such other matters as justice may require.

(3) Transfer of ownership of a vessel, by sale or otherwise, shall not extinguish any permit sanction that is in effect or is pending at the time of transfer of ownership. Before executing the transfer of ownership of a vessel, by sale or otherwise, the owner shall disclose in writing to the prospective transferee the existence of any permit sanction that will be in effect or pending with respect to the vessel at the time of the transfer.

(4) In the case of any permit that is suspended under this subsection for nonpayment of a civil penalty or criminal fine, the Secretary shall reinstate the permit upon payment of the penalty or fine and interest thereon at the prevailing rate.

(5) No sanctions shall be imposed under this subsection unless there has been prior opportunity for a hearing on the facts underlying the violation for which the sanction is imposed, either in conjunction with a civil penalty proceeding under this section or otherwise.

SEC. 309. CRIMINAL OFFENSES 16 U.S.C. 1859

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(a) OFFENSES.--A person is guilty of an offense if he commits any act prohibited by--

(1) section 307(1)(D), (E), (F), (H), (I), or (L); or

(2) section 307(2).

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(b) PUNISHMENT.--Any offense described in subsection (a)(1) is punishable by a fine of not more than $100,000, or imprisonment for not more than 6 months, or both; except that if in the commission of any such offense the person uses a dangerous weapon, engages in conduct that causes bodily injury to any observer described in section 307(1)(L) or any officer authorized to enforce the provisions of this Act (as provided for in section 311), or places any such observer or officer in fear of imminent bodily injury, the offense is punishable by a fine of not more than $200,000, or imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both. Any offense described in subsection (a)(2) is punishable by a fine of not more than $200,000.

(c) JURISDICTION.--There is Federal jurisdiction over any offense described in this section.

SEC. 310. CIVIL FORFEITURES 16 U.S.C. 1860

97-453

(a) IN GENERAL.--Any fishing vessel (including its fishing gear, furniture, appurtenances, stores, and cargo) used, and any fish (or the fair market value thereof) taken or retained, in any manner, in connection with or as a result of the commission of any act prohibited by section 307 (other than any act for which the issuance of a citation under section 311(c) is sufficient sanction) shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States. All or part of such vessel may, and all such fish (or the fair market value thereof) shall, be forfeited to the United States pursuant to a civil proceeding under this section.

(b) JURISDICTION OF DISTRICT COURTS.--Any district court of the United States which has jurisdiction under section 311(d) shall have jurisdiction, upon application by the Attorney General on behalf of the United States, to order any forfeiture authorized under subsection (a) and any action provided for under subsection (d).

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(c) JUDGMENT.--If a judgment is entered for the United States in a civil forfeiture proceeding under this section, the Attorney General may seize any property or other interest declared forfeited to the United States, which has not previously been seized pursuant to this Act or for which security has not previously been obtained under subsection (d). The provisions of the customs laws relating to--

(1) the seizure, forfeiture, and condemnation of property for violation of the customs law;

(2) the disposition of such property or the proceeds from the sale thereof; and

(3) the remission or mitigation of any such forfeiture; shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provisions of this Act, unless such provisions are inconsistent with the purposes, policy, and provisions of this Act.

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(d) PROCEDURE.--

(1) Any officer authorized to serve any process in rem which is issued by a court having jurisdiction under section 311(d) shall--

(A) stay the execution of such process; or

(B) discharge any fish seized pursuant to such process; upon the receipt of a satisfactory bond or other security from any person claiming such property. Such bond or other security shall be conditioned upon such person (i) delivering such property to the appropriate court upon order thereof, without any impairment of its value, or (ii) paying the monetary value of such property pursuant to an order of such court. Judgment shall be recoverable on such bond or other security against both the principal and any sureties in the event that any condition thereof is breached, as determined by such court. Nothing in this paragraph may be construed to require the Secretary, except in the Secretary's discretion or pursuant to the order of a court under section 311(d), to release on bond any seized fish or other property or the proceeds from the sale thereof.

(2) Any fish seized pursuant to this Act may be sold, subject to the approval and direction of the appropriate court, for not less than the fair market value thereof. The proceeds of any such sale shall be deposited with such court pending the disposition of the matter involved.

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(e) REBUTTABLE PRESUMPTION.--

(1) For purposes of this section, it shall be a rebuttable presumption that all fish found on board a fishing vessel which is seized in connection with an act prohibited by section 307 were taken and retained in violation of this Act.

(2) For purposes of this Act, it shall be a rebuttable presumption that any fish of a species which spawns in fresh or estuarine waters and migrates to ocean waters that is found on board a vessel is of United States origin if the vessel is within the migratory range of the species during that part of the year to which the migratory range applies.

(3) For purposes of this Act, it shall be a rebuttable presumption that any vessel that is shoreward of the outer boundary of the exclusive economic zon]e of the United States or beyond the exclusive economic zone of any nation, and that has gear on board that is capable of use for large-scale driftnet fishing, is engaged in such fishing.

SEC. 311. ENFORCEMENT 16 U.S.C. 1861

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(a) RESPONSIBILITY.--The provisions of this Act shall be enforced by the Secretary and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. Such Secretaries may, by agreement, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, utilize the personnel, services, equipment (including aircraft and vessels), and facilities of any other Federal agency, including all elements of the Department of Defense, and of any State agency, in the performance of such duties.

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(b) POWERS OF AUTHORIZED OFFICERS.--

(1) Any officer who is authorized (by the Secretary, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, or the head of any Federal or State agency which has entered into an agreement with such Secretaries under subsection (a)) to enforce the provisions of this Act may--

(A) with or without a warrant or other process--

(i) arrest any person, if he has reasonable cause to believe that such person has committed an act prohibited by section 307;

(ii) board, and search or inspect, any fishing vessel which is subject to the provisions of this Act;

(iii) seize any fishing vessel (together with its fishing gear, furniture, appurtenances, stores, and cargo) used or employed in, or with respect to which it reasonably appears that such vessel was used or employed in, the violation of any provision of this Act;

(iv) seize any fish (wherever found) taken or retained in violation of any provision of this Act; and

(v) seize any other evidence related to any violation of any provision of this Act;

(B) execute any warrant or other process issued by any court of competent jurisdiction; and

(C) exercise any other lawful authority.

(2) Subject to the direction of the Secretary, a person charged with law enforcement responsibilities by the Secretary who is performing a duty related to enforcement of a law regarding fisheries or other marine resources may make an arrest without a warrant for an offense against the United States committed in his presence, or for a felony cognizable under the laws of the United States, if he has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony. The arrest authority described in the preceding sentence may be conferred upon an officer or employee of a State agency, subject to such conditions and restrictions as are set forth by agreement between the State agency, the Secretary, and, with respect to enforcement operations within the exclusive economic zone [or special areas]*, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.

(c) ISSUANCE OF CITATIONS.--If any officer authorized to enforce the provisions of this Act (as provided for in this section) finds that a fishing vessel is operating or has been operated in violation of any provision of this Act, such officer may, in accordance with regulations issued jointly by the Secretary and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, issue a citation to the owner or operator of such vessel in lieu of proceeding under subsection (b). If a permit has been issued pursuant to this Act for such vessel, such officer shall note the issuance of any citation under this subsection, including the date thereof and the reason therefor, on the permit. The Secretary shall maintain a record of all citations issued pursuant to this subsection.

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(d) JURISDICTION OF COURTS.--The district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction over any case or controversy arising under the provisions of this Act. In the case of Guam or any possession of the United States in the Pacific Ocean, the appropriate court is the United States District Court for the District of Guam, except that in the case of American Samoa, the appropriate court is the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii, and except that in the case of the Northern Mariana Islands, the appropriate court is the United States District Court for the District of the Northern Mariana Islands. Any such court may, at any time--

(1) enter restraining orders or prohibitions;

(2) issue warrants, process in rem, or other process;

(3) prescribe and accept satisfactory bonds or other security; and

(4) take such other actions as are in the interest of justice.

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(e) PAYMENT OF STORAGE, CARE, AND OTHER COSTS.--

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary or the Secretary of the Treasury may pay from sums received as fines, penalties, and forfeitures of property for violations of any provisions of this Act or of any other marine resource law enforced by the Secretary, including the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981 (16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.)--

(A) the reasonable and necessary costs incurred in providing temporary storage, care, and maintenance of seized fish or other property pending disposition of any civil or criminal proceeding alleging a violation of any provision of this Act or any other marine resource law enforced by the Secretary with respect to that fish or other property;

(B) a reward of not less than 20 percent of the penalty collected or $20,000, whichever is the lesser amount, to any person who furnishes information which leads to an arrest, conviction, civil penalty assessment, or forfeiture of property for any violation of any provision of this Act or any other fishery resource law enforced by the Secretary;

(C) any expenses directly related to investigations and civil or criminal enforcement proceedings, including any necessary expenses for equipment, training, travel, witnesses, and contracting services directly related to such investigations or proceedings;

(D) any valid liens or mortgages against any property that has been forfeited;

(E) claims of parties in interest to property disposed of under section 612(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1612(b)), as made applicable by section 310(c) of this Act or by any other marine resource law enforced by the Secretary, to seizures made by the Secretary, in amounts determined by the Secretary to be applicable to such claims at the time of seizure; and

(F) reimbursement to any Federal or State agency, including the Coast Guard, for services performed, or personnel, equipment, or facilities utilized, under any agreement with the Secretary entered into pursuant to subsection (a), or any similar agreement authorized by law.

(2) Any person found in an administrative or judicial proceeding to have violated this Act or any other marine resource law enforced by the Secretary shall be liable for the cost incurred in the sale, storage, care, and maintenance of any fish or other property lawfully seized in connection with the violation.

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(f) ENFORCEMENT OF NORTHEAST MULTISPECIES FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLAN.--

(1) ENFORCEMENT AGREEMENTS.--Beginning not later than October 1, 1993, the Secretary shall, if requested by the Governor of a State represented on the New England Fishery Management Council, enter into an agreement under subsection (a), with each of the States represented on such Council, that authorizes the marine law enforcement agency of such State to perform duties of the Secretary relating to enforcement of the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan.

(2) REIMBURSEMENT.--An agreement with a State under this subsection shall provide, subject to the availability of appropriations, for reimbursement of the State for expenses incurred in detection and prosecution of violations of any fishery management plan approved by the Secretary.

(3) COAST GUARD ENFORCEMENT WORKING GROUP.--

(A) ESTABLISHMENT.--The Commander of the First Coast Guard District shall establish an informal fisheries enforcement working group to improve the overall compliance with and effectiveness of the regulations issued under the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan.

(B) MEMBERSHIP.--The working group shall consist of members selected by the Commander, and shall include--

(i) individuals who are representatives of various fishing ports located in the States represented on the New England Fishery Management Council;

(ii) captains of fishing vessels that operate in waters under the jurisdiction of that Council; and

(iii) other individuals the Commander considers appropriate.

(C) NON-FEDERAL STATUS OF WORKING GROUP MEMBERS.--An individual shall not receive any compensation for, and shall not be considered to be a Federal employee based on, membership in the working group.

(D) MEETINGS.--The working group shall meet, at the call of the Commander, at least four times each year. The meetings shall be held at various major fishing ports in States represented on the New England Fishery Management Council, as specified by the Commander.

(4) USE OF FINES AND PENALTIES.--Amounts available to the Secretary under this Act which are attributable to fines and penalties imposed for violations of the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan shall be used by the Secretary pursuant to this section to enforce that Plan.

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(g) ENFORCEMENT IN THE PACIFIC INSULAR AREAS.--The Secretary, in consultation with the Governors of the Pacific Insular Areas and the Western Pacific Council, shall to the extent practicable support cooperative enforcement agreements between Federal and Pacific Insular Area authorities.

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(h) DEFINITIONS[6] .--For purposes of this section--

(1) The term "provisions of this Act" includes (A) any regulation or permit issued pursuant to this Act, and (B) any provision of, or regulation issued pursuant to, any international fishery agreement under which foreign fishing is authorized by section 201(b) or (c), or section 204(d), with respect to fishing subject to the exclusive fishery management authority of the United States.

(2) The term "violation of any provision of this Act" includes (A) the commission of any act prohibited by section 307, and (B) the violation of any regulation, permit, or agreement referred to in paragraph (1).

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SEC. 312. TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES[7] 16 U.S.C. 1861a

(a) FISHERIES DISASTER RELIEF.--

(1) At the discretion of the Secretary or at the request of the Governor of an affected State or a fishing community, the Secretary shall determine whether there is a commercial fishery failure due to a fishery resource disaster as a result of--

(A) natural causes;

(B) man-made causes beyond the control of fishery managers to mitigate through conservation and management measures; or

(C) undetermined causes.

(2) Upon the determination under paragraph (1) that there is a commercial fishery failure, the Secretary is authorized to make sums available to be used by the affected State, fishing community, or by the Secretary in cooperation with the affected State or fishing community for assessing the economic and social effects of the commercial fishery failure, or any activity that the Secretary determines is appropriate to restore the fishery or prevent a similar failure in the future and to assist a fishing community affected by such failure. Before making funds available for an activity authorized under this section, the Secretary shall make a determination that such activity will not expand the size or scope of the commercial fishery failure in that fishery or into other fisheries or other geographic regions.

(3) The Federal share of the cost of any activity carried out under the authority of this subsection shall not exceed 75 percent of the cost of that activity.

(4) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary such sums as are necessary for each of the fiscal years 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999.

(b) FISHING CAPACITY REDUCTION PROGRAM.--

(1) The Secretary, at the request of the appropriate Council for fisheries under the authority of such Council, or the Governor of a State for fisheries under State authority, may conduct a fishing capacity reduction program (referred to in this section as the 'program') in a fishery if the Secretary determines that the program--

(A) is necessary to prevent or end overfishing, rebuild stocks of fish, or achieve measurable and significant improvements in the conservation and management of the fishery;

(B) is consistent with the Federal or State fishery management plan or program in effect for such fishery, as appropriate, and that the fishery management plan--

(i) will prevent the replacement of fishing capacity removed by the program through a moratorium on new entrants, restrictions on vessel upgrades, and other effort control measures, taking into account the full potential fishing capacity of the fleet; and

(ii) establishes a specified or target total allowable catch or other measures that trigger closure of the fishery or adjustments to reduce catch; and

(C) is cost-effective and capable of repaying any debt obligation incurred under section 1111 of title XI of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936.

(2) The objective of the program shall be to obtain the maximum sustained reduction in fishing capacity at the least cost and in a minimum period of time. To achieve that objective, the Secretary is authorized to pay--

(A) the owner of a fishing vessel, if such vessel is (i) scrapped, or (ii) through the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, subjected to title restrictions that permanently prohibit and effectively prevent its use in fishing, and if the permit authorizing the participation of the vessel in the fishery is surrendered for permanent revocation and the owner relinquishes any claim associated with the vessel and permit that could qualify such owner for any present or future limited access system permit in the fishery for which the program is established; or

(B) the holder of a permit authorizing participation in the fishery, if such permit is surrendered for permanent revocation, and such holder relinquishes any claim associated with the permit and vessel used to harvest fishery resources under the permit that could qualify such holder for any present or future limited access system permit in the fishery for which the program was established.

(3) Participation in the program shall be voluntary, but the Secretary shall ensure compliance by all who do participate.

(4) The Secretary shall consult, as appropriate, with Councils, Federal agencies, State and regional authorities, affected fishing communities, participants in the fishery, conservation organizations, and other interested parties throughout the development and implementation of any program under this section.

(c) PROGRAM FUNDING.--

(1) The program may be funded by any combination of amounts--

(A) available under clause (iv) of section 2(b)(1)(A) of the Act of August 11, 1939 (15 U.S.C. 713c-3(b)(1)(A); the Saltonstall-Kennedy Act);

(B) appropriated for the purposes of this section;

(C) provided by an industry fee system established under subsection (d) and in accordance with section 1111 of title XI of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936; or

(D) provided from any State or other public sources or private or non-profit organizations.

(2) All funds for the program, including any fees established under subsection (d), shall be paid into the fishing capacity reduction fund established under section 1111 of title XI of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936.

(d) INDUSTRY FEE SYSTEM.--

(1) (A) If an industry fee system is necessary to fund the program, the Secretary, at the request of the appropriate Council, may conduct a referendum on such system. Prior to the referendum, the Secretary, in consultation with the Council, shall--

(i) identify, to the extent practicable, and notify all permit or vessel owners who would be affected by the program; and

(ii) make available to such owners information about the industry fee system describing the schedule, procedures, and eligibility requirements for the referendum, the proposed program, and the amount and duration and any other terms and conditions of the proposed fee system.

(B) The industry fee system shall be considered approved if the referendum votes which are cast in favor of the proposed system constitute a two-thirds majority of the participants voting.

(2) Notwithstanding section 304(d) and consistent with an approved industry fee system, the Secretary is authorized to establish such a system to fund the program and repay debt obligations incurred pursuant to section 1111 of title XI of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936. The fees for a program established under this section shall--

(A) be determined by the Secretary and adjusted from time to time as the Secretary considers necessary to ensure the availability of sufficient funds to repay such debt obligations;

(B) not exceed 5 percent of the ex-vessel value of all fish harvested from the fishery for which the program is established;

(C) be deducted by the first ex-vessel fish purchaser from the proceeds otherwise payable to the seller and accounted for and forwarded by such fish purchasers to the Secretary in such manner as the Secretary may establish; and

(D) be in effect only until such time as the debt obligation has been fully paid.

(e) IMPLEMENTATION PLAN.--

(1) The Secretary, in consultation with the appropriate Council or State and other interested parties, shall prepare and publish in the Federal Register for a 60-day public comment period an implementation plan, including proposed regulations, for each program. The implementation plan shall--

(A) define criteria for determining types and numbers of vessels which are eligible for participation in the program taking into account characteristics of the fishery, the requirements of applicable fishery management plans, the needs of fishing communities, and the need to minimize program costs; and

(B) establish procedures for program participation (such as submission of owner bid under an auction system or fair market-value assessment) including any terms and conditions for participation which the Secretary deems to be reasonably necessary to meet the goals of the program.

(2) During the 60-day public comment period--

(A) the Secretary shall conduct a public hearing in each State affected by the program; and

(B) the appropriate Council or State shall submit its comments and recommendations, if any, regarding the plan and regulations.

(3) Within 45 days after the close of the public comment period, the Secretary, in consultation with the appropriate Council or State, shall analyze the public comment received and publish in the Federal Register a final implementation plan for the program and regulations for its implementation. The Secretary may not adopt a final implementation plan involving industry fees or debt obligation unless an industry fee system has been approved by a referendum under this section.

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SEC. 313. NORTH PACIFIC FISHERIES CONSERVATION 16 U.S.C. 1862

104-297

(a) IN GENERAL.--The North Pacific Council may prepare, in consultation with the Secretary, a fisheries research plan for all fisheries under the Council's jurisdiction except salmon fisheries which--

(1) requires that observers be stationed on fishing vessels engaged in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish and on United States fish processors fishing for or processing species under the jurisdiction of the Council, including the Northern Pacific halibut fishery, for the purpose of collecting data necessary for the conservation, management, and scientific understanding of any fisheries under the Council's jurisdiction; and

(2) establishes a system of fees to pay for the costs of implementing the plan.

102-582

(b) STANDARDS.--

(1) Any plan or plan amendment prepared under this section shall be reasonably calculated to--

(A) gather reliable data, by stationing observers on all or a statistically reliable sample of the fishing vessels and United States fish processors included in the plan, necessary for the conservation, management, and scientific understanding of the fisheries covered by the plan;

(B) be fair and equitable to all vessels and processors;

(C) be consistent with applicable provisions of law; and

(D) take into consideration the operating requirements of the fisheries and the safety of observers and fishermen.

(2) Any system of fees established under this section shall--

(A) provide that the total amount of fees collected under this section not exceed the combined cost of (i) stationing observers on board fishing vessels and United States fish processors, (ii) the actual cost of inputting collected data, and (iii) assessments necessary for a risk-sharing pool implemented under subsection (e) of this section, less any amount received for such purpose from another source or from an existing surplus in the North Pacific Fishery Observer Fund established in subsection (d) of this section;

(B) be fair and equitable to all participants in the fisheries under the jurisdiction of the Council, including the Northern Pacific halibut fishery;

(C) provide that fees collected not be used to pay any costs of administrative overhead or other costs not directly incurred in carrying out the plan;

(D) not be used to offset amounts authorized under other provisions of law;

(E) be expressed as a percentage, not to exceed 2 percent, of the unprocessed ex-vessel value of the fish and shellfish harvested under the jurisdiction of the Council, including the Northern Pacific halibut fishery;

(F) be assessed against all fishing vessels and United States fish processors, including those not required to carry an observer under the plan, participating in fisheries under the jurisdiction of the Council, including the Northern Pacific halibut fishery;

(G) provide that fees collected will be deposited in the North Pacific Fishery Observer Fund established under subsection (d) of this section;

(H) provide that fees collected will only be used for implementing the plan established under this section; and

(I) meet the requirements of section 9701(b) of title 31, United States Code.

(c) ACTION BY SECRETARY.--

(1) Within 60 days after receiving a plan or plan amendment from the North Pacific Council under this section, the Secretary shall review such plan or plan amendment and either (A) remand such plan or plan amendment to the Council with comments if it does not meet the requirements of this section, or (B) publish in the Federal Register proposed regulations for implementing such plan or plan amendment.

(2) During the 60-day public comment period, the Secretary shall conduct a public hearing in each State represented on the Council for the purpose of receiving public comments on the proposed regulations.

(3) Within 45 days of the close of the public comment period, the Secretary, in consultation with the Council, shall analyze the public comment received and publish final regulations for implementing such plan.

(4) If the Secretary remands a plan or plan amendment to the Council for failure to meet the requirements of this section, the Council may resubmit such plan or plan amendment at any time after taking action the Council believes will address the defects identified by the Secretary. Any plan or plan amendment resubmitted to the Secretary will be treated as an original plan submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(d) FISHERY OBSERVER FUND.--There is established in the Treasury a North Pacific Fishery Observer Fund. The Fund shall be available, without appropriation or fiscal year limitation, only to the Secretary for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section, subject to the restrictions in subsection (b)(2) of this section. The Fund shall consist of all monies deposited into it in accordance with this section. Sums in the Fund that are not currently needed for the purposes of this section shall be kept on deposit or invested in obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States.

(e) SPECIAL PROVISIONS REGARDING OBSERVERS.--

(1) The Secretary shall review--

(A) the feasibility of establishing a risk sharing pool through a reasonable fee, subject to the limitations of subsection (b)(2)(E) of his section, to provide coverage for vessels and owners against liability from civil suits by observers, and

(B) the availability of comprehensive commercial insurance for vessel and owner liability against civil suits by observers.

(2) If the Secretary determines that a risk sharing pool is feasible, the Secretary shall establish such a pool, subject to the provisions of subsection (b)(2) of this section, unless the Secretary determines that--

(A) comprehensive commercial insurance is available for all fishing vessels and United States fish processors required to have observers under the provisions of this section, and

(B) such comprehensive commercial insurance will provide a greater measure of coverage at a lower cost to each participant.

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(f) BYCATCH REDUCTION.--In implementing section 303(a)(11) and this section, the North Pacific Council shall submit conservation and management measures to lower, on an annual basis for a period of not less than four years, the total amount of economic discards occurring in the fisheries under its jurisdiction.

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(g) BYCATCH REDUCTION INCENTIVES.--

(1) Notwithstanding section 304(d), the North Pacific Council may submit, and the Secretary may approve, consistent with the provisions of this Act, a system of fines in a fishery to provide incentives to reduce bycatch and bycatch rates; except that such fines shall not exceed $25,000 per vessel per season. Any fines collected shall be deposited in the North Pacific Fishery Observer Fund, and may be made available by the Secretary to offset costs related to the reduction of bycatch in the fishery from which such fines were derived, including conservation and management measures and research, and to the State of Alaska to offset costs incurred by the State in the fishery from which such penalties were derived or in fisheries in which the State is directly involved in management or enforcement and which are directly affected by the fishery from which such penalties were derived.

(2) (A) Notwithstanding section 303(d), and in addition to the authority provided in section 303(b)(10), the North Pacific Council may submit, and the Secretary may approve, conservation and management measures which provide allocations of regulatory discards to individual fishing vessels as an incentive to reduce per vessel bycatch and bycatch rates in a fishery, Provided, That--

(i) such allocations may not be transferred for monetary consideration and are made only on an annual basis; and

(ii) any such conservation and management measures will meet the requirements of subsection (h) and will result in an actual reduction in regulatory discards in the fishery.

(B) The North Pacific Council may submit restrictions in addition to the restriction imposed by clause (i) of subparagraph (A) on the transferability of any such allocations, and the Secretary may approve such recommendation.

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(h) CATCH MEASUREMENT.--

(1) By June 1, 1997 the North Pacific Council shall submit, and the Secretary may approve, consistent with the other provisions of this Act, conservation and management measures to ensure total catch measurement in each fishery under the jurisdiction of such Council. Such measures shall ensure the accurate enumeration, at a minimum, of target species, economic discards, and regulatory discards.

(2) To the extent the measures submitted under paragraph (1) do not require United States fish processors and fish processing vessels (as defined in chapter 21 of title 46, United States Code) to weigh fish, the North Pacific Council and the Secretary shall submit a plan to the Congress by January 1, 1998, to allow for weighing, including recommendations to assist such processors and processing vessels in acquiring necessary equipment, unless the Council determines that such weighing is not necessary to meet the requirements of this subsection.

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(i) FULL RETENTION AND UTILIZATION.--

(1) The North Pacific Council shall submit to the Secretary by October 1, 1998 a report on the advisability of requiring the full retention by fishing vessels and full utilization by United States fish processors of economic discards in fisheries under its jurisdiction if such economic discards, or the mortality of such economic discards, cannot be avoided. The report shall address the projected impacts of such requirements on participants in the fishery and describe any full retention and full utilization requirements that have been implemented.

(2) The report shall address the advisability of measures to minimize processing waste, including standards setting minimum percentages which must be processed for human consumption. For the purpose of the report, 'processing waste' means that portion of any fish which is processed and which could be used for human consumption or other commercial use, but which is not so used.

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SEC. 314. NORTHWEST ATLANTIC OCEAN FISHERIES 16 U.S.C. 1863

REINVESTMENT PROGRAM.--

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(a) PROGRAM.--(1) Not later than October 1, 1993, the Secretary shall establish a Northwest Atlantic Ocean Fisheries Reinvestment Program for the purposes of--

(A) promoting development of commercial fisheries and markets for underutilized species of the northwest Atlantic Ocean;

(B) developing alternative fishing opportunities for participants in the New England groundfish fishery;

(C) providing technical support and assistance to United States fishermen and fish processors to improve the value-added processing of underutilized species and to make participation in fisheries for underutilized species of the northwest Atlantic Ocean economically viable;

(D) creating new economic opportunities through the improved processing and expanded use of fish waste; and

(E) helping to restore overfished New England groundfish stocks through aquaculture or hatchery programs.

(2) CONSULTATION.--In establishing and implementing the Northwest [sic] Fisheries Reinvestment Program, the Secretary shall consult with representatives of the commercial fishing industry, the seafood processing industry, and the academic community (including the National Sea Grant Program).

(3) ACTIVITIES UNDER PROGRAM.--Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall award contracts, grants and other financial assistance to United States citizens to carry out the purposes of subsection (1), under the terms and conditions provided in section 2(c) of the Act of August 11, 1939 (15 U.S.C. 713(c)-3(c); commonly referred to as the "Saltonstall-Kennedy Act"), except that, in making awards under this section for projects involving participation in fisheries for underutilized species, the Secretary shall give the highest priority to a person who owns or operates a fishing vessel permitted under this Act to participate in the New England groundfish fishery who agrees to surrender that permit to the Secretary during the duration of the contract, grant or other assistance.

(4) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.--There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1993 through 1999 to carry out the purposes of this section. For fiscal year 1993 no more than $1,000,000, and for fiscal year 1994 no more than $2,000,000, of such funds may be provided from monies made available under section 2(b) of the Act of August 11, 1939 (15 U.S.C. 713c-3(b)).

(b) ASSISTANCE OF OTHER AGENCIES.--The Secretary shall actively seek the assistance of other Federal agencies in the development of fisheries for underutilized species of the northwest Atlantic Ocean, including, to the extent permitted by other applicable laws, assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture in including such underutilized species as agricultural commodities in the programs of the Foreign Agricultural Service for which amounts are authorized under the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-624; 104 Stat. 3359).

(c) MANAGEMENT PLANS FOR UNDERUTILIZED SPECIES.--The New England Fishery Management Council, in consultation with other appropriate Councils, shall develop fishery management plans as soon as possible for any underutilized species of the northwest Atlantic Ocean that is not covered under such a plan, in order to prevent overfishing of that species.

(d) UNDERUTILIZED SPECIES DEFINED.--For purposes of this section, the term "underutilized species of the northwest Atlantic Ocean" means any fish species of the northwest Atlantic Ocean that is identified, by the Director of the Northeast Fisheries Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service, as an underutilized species.

TITLE IV -- FISHERY MONITORING AND RESEARCH

104-297

SEC. 401. REGISTRATION AND 16 U.S.C. 1881

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

(a) STANDARDIZED FISHING VESSEL REGISTRATION AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.--The Secretary shall, in cooperation with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the States, the Councils, and Marine Fisheries Commissions, develop recommendations for implementation of a standardized fishing vessel registration and information management system on a regional basis. The recommendations shall be developed after consultation with interested governmental and nongovernmental parties and shall--

(1) be designed to standardize the requirements of vessel registration and information collection systems required by this Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and any other marine resource law implemented by the Secretary, and, with the permission of a State, any marine resource law implemented by such State;

(2) integrate information collection programs under existing fishery management plans into a non-duplicative information collection and management system;

(3) avoid duplication of existing State, tribal, or Federal systems and shall utilize, to the maximum extent practicable, information collected from existing systems;

(4) provide for implementation of the system through cooperative agreements with appropriate State, regional, or tribal entities and Marine Fisheries Commissions;

(5) provide for funding (subject to appropriations) to assist appropriate State, regional, or tribal entities and Marine Fisheries Commissions in implementation;

(6) establish standardized units of measurement, nomenclature, and formats for the collection and submission of information;

(7) minimize the paperwork required for vessels registered under the system;

(8) include all species of fish within the geographic areas of authority of the Councils and all fishing vessels including charter fishing vessels, but excluding recreational fishing vessels;

(9) require United States fish processors, and fish dealers and other first ex-vessel purchasers of fish that are subject to the proposed system, to submit information (other than economic information) which may be necessary to meet the goals of the proposed system; and

(10) include procedures necessary to ensure--

(A) the confidentiality of information collected under this section in accordance with section 402(b); and

(B) the timely release or availability to the public of information collected under this section consistent with section 402(b).

(b) FISHING VESSEL REGISTRATION.--The proposed registration system should, at a minimum, obtain the following information for each fishing vessel--

(1) the name and official number or other identification, together with the name and address of the owner or operator or both;

(2) gross tonnage, vessel capacity, type and quantity of fishing gear, mode of operation (catcher, catcher processor, or other), and such other pertinent information with respect to vessel characteristics as the Secretary may require; and

(3) identification (by species, gear type, geographic area of operations, and season) of the fisheries in which the fishing vessel participates.

(c) FISHERY INFORMATION.--The proposed information management system should, at a minimum, provide basic fisheries performance information for each fishery, including--

(1) the number of vessels participating in the fishery including charter fishing vessels;

(2) the time period in which the fishery occurs;

(3) the approximate geographic location or official reporting area where the fishery occurs;

(4) a description of fishing gear used in the fishery, including the amount and type of such gear and the appropriate unit of fishing effort; and

(5) other information required under subsection 303(a)(5) or requested by the Council under section 402.

(d) USE OF REGISTRATION.--Any registration recommended under this section shall not be considered a permit for the purposes of this Act, and the Secretary may not propose to revoke, suspend, deny, or impose any other conditions or restrictions on any such registration or the use of such registration under this Act.

(e) PUBLIC COMMENT.--Within one year after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register for a 60-day public comment period a proposal that would provide for implementation of a standardized fishing vessel registration and information collection system that meets the requirements of subsections (a) through (c). The proposal shall include--

(1) a description of the arrangements of the Secretary for consultation and cooperation with the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the States, the Councils, Marine Fisheries Commissions, the fishing industry and other interested parties; and

(2) any proposed regulations or legislation necessary to implement the proposal.

(f) CONGRESSIONAL TRANSMITTAL.--Within 60 days after the end of the comment period and after consideration of comments received under subsection (e), the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives a recommended proposal for implementation of a national fishing vessel registration system that includes--

(1) any modifications made after comment and consultation;

(2) a proposed implementation schedule, including a schedule for the proposed cooperative agreements required under subsection (a)(4); and

(3) recommendations for any such additional legislation as the Secretary considers necessary or desirable to implement the proposed system.

(g) REPORT TO CONGRESS.--Within 15 months after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall report to Congress on the need to include recreational fishing vessels into a national fishing vessel registration and information collection system. In preparing its report, the Secretary shall cooperate with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the States, the Councils, and Marine Fisheries Commissions, and consult with governmental and nongovernmental parties

104-297

SEC. 402. INFORMATION COLLECTION7 16 U.S.C. 1881a

(a) COUNCIL REQUESTS.--If a Council determines that additional information (other than information that would disclose proprietary or confidential commercial or financial information regarding fishing operations or fish processing operations) would be beneficial for developing, implementing, or revising a fishery management plan or for determining whether a fishery is in need of management, the Council may request that the Secretary implement an information collection program for the fishery which would provide the types of information (other than information that would disclose proprietary or confidential commercial or financial information regarding fishing operations or fish processing operations) specified by the Council. The Secretary shall undertake such an information collection program if he determines that the need is justified, and shall promulgate regulations to implement the program within 60 days after such determination is made. If the Secretary determines that the need for an information collection program is not justified, the Secretary shall inform the Council of the reasons for such determination in writing. The determinations of the Secretary under this subsection regarding a Council request shall be made within a reasonable period of time after receipt of that request.

(b) CONFIDENTIALITY OF INFORMATION.--

(1) Any information submitted to the Secretary by any person in compliance with any requirement under this Act shall be confidential and shall not be disclosed, except--

(A) to Federal employees and Council employees who are responsible for fishery management plan development and monitoring;

(B) to State or Marine Fisheries Commission employees pursuant to an agreement with the Secretary that prevents public disclosure of the identity or business of any person;

(C) when required by court order;

(D) when such information is used to verify catch under an individual fishing quota program;

(E) that observer information collected in fisheries under the authority of the North Pacific Council may be released to the public as specified in a fishery management plan or regulation for weekly summary bycatch information identified by vessel, and for haul-specific bycatch information without vessel identification; or

(F) when the Secretary has obtained written authorization from the person submitting such information to release such information to persons for reasons not otherwise provided for in this subsection, and such release does not violate other requirements of this Act.

(2) The Secretary shall, by regulation, prescribe such procedures as may be necessary to preserve the confidentiality of information submitted in compliance with any requirement or regulation under this Act, except that the Secretary may release or make public any such information in any aggregate or summary form which does not directly or indirectly disclose the identity or business of any person who submits such information. Nothing in this subsection shall be interpreted or construed to prevent the use for conservation and management purposes by the Secretary, or with the approval of the Secretary, the Council, of any information submitted in compliance with any requirement or regulation under this Act or the use, release, or publication of bycatch information pursuant to paragraph (1)(E).

(c) RESTRICTION ON USE OF CERTAIN INFORMATION.--

(1) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations to restrict the use, in civil enforcement or criminal proceedings under this Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), of information collected by voluntary fishery data collectors, including sea samplers, while aboard any vessel for conservation and management purposes if the presence of such a fishery data collector aboard is not required by any of such Acts or regulations thereunder.

(2) The Secretary may not require the submission of a Federal or State income tax return or statement as a prerequisite for issuance of a permit until such time as the Secretary has promulgated regulations to ensure the confidentiality of information contained in such return or statement, to limit the information submitted to that necessary to achieve a demonstrated conservation and management purpose, and to provide appropriate penalties for violation of such regulations.

(d) CONTRACTING AUTHORITY.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may provide a grant, contract, or other financial assistance on a sole-source basis to a State, Council, or Marine Fisheries Commission for the purpose of carrying out information collection or other programs if--

(1) the recipient of such a grant, contract, or other financial assistance is specified by statute to be, or has customarily been, such State, Council, or Marine Fisheries Commission; or

(2) the Secretary has entered into a cooperative agreement with such State, Council, or Marine Fisheries Commission.

(e) RESOURCE ASSESSMENTS.--

(1) The Secretary may use the private sector to provide vessels, equipment, and services necessary to survey the fishery resources of the United States when the arrangement will yield statistically reliable results.

(2) The Secretary, in consultation with the appropriate Council and the fishing industry--

(A) may structure competitive solicitations under paragraph (1) so as to compensate a contractor for a fishery resources survey by allowing the contractor to retain for sale fish harvested during the survey voyage;

(B) in the case of a survey during which the quantity or quality of fish harvested is not expected to be adequately compensatory, may structure those solicitations so as to provide that compensation by permitting the contractor to harvest on a subsequent voyage and retain for sale a portion of the allowable catch of the surveyed fishery; and

(C) may permit fish harvested during such survey to count toward a vessel's catch history under a fishery management plan if such survey was conducted in a manner that precluded a vessel's participation in a fishery that counted under the plan for purposes of determining catch history.

(3) The Secretary shall undertake efforts to expand annual fishery resource assessments in all regions of the Nation.

104-297

SEC. 403. OBSERVERS7 16 U.S.C. 1881b

(a) GUIDELINES FOR CARRYING OBSERVERS.--Within one year after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations, after notice and opportunity for public comment, for fishing vessels that carry observers. The regulations shall include guidelines for determining--

(1) when a vessel is not required to carry an observer on board because the facilities of such vessel for the quartering of an observer, or for carrying out observer functions, are so inadequate or unsafe that the health or safety of the observer or the safe operation of the vessel would be jeopardized; and

(2) actions which vessel owners or operators may reasonably be required to take to render such facilities adequate and safe.

(b) TRAINING.--The Secretary, in cooperation with the appropriate States and the National Sea Grant College Program, shall--

(1) establish programs to ensure that each observer receives adequate training in collecting and analyzing the information necessary for the conservation and management purposes of the fishery to which such observer is assigned;

(2) require that an observer demonstrate competence in fisheries science and statistical analysis at a level sufficient to enable such person to fulfill the responsibilities of the position;

(3) ensure that an observer has received adequate training in basic vessel safety; and

(4) make use of university and any appropriate private nonprofit organization training facilities and resources, where possible, in carrying out this subsection.

(c) OBSERVER STATUS.--An observer on a vessel and under contract to carry out responsibilities under this Act or the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) shall be deemed to be a Federal employee for the purpose of compensation under the Federal Employee Compensation Act (5 U.S.C. 8101 et seq.).

104-297

SEC. 404 FISHERIES RESEARCH7 16 U.S.C. 1881c

(a) IN GENERAL.--The Secretary shall initiate and maintain, in cooperation with the Councils, a comprehensive program of fishery research to carry out and further the purposes, policy, and provisions of this Act. Such program shall be designed to acquire knowledge and information, including statistics, on fishery conservation and management and on the economics and social characteristics of the fisheries.

(b) STRATEGIC PLAN.--Within one year after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, and at least every 3 years thereafter, the Secretary shall develop and publish in the Federal Register a strategic plan for fisheries research for the 5 years immediately following such publication. The plan shall--

(1) identify and describe a comprehensive program with a limited number of priority objectives for research in each of the areas specified in subsection (c);

(2) indicate goals and timetables for the program described in paragraph (1);

(3) provide a role for commercial fishermen in such research, including involvement in field testing;

(4) provide for collection and dissemination, in a timely manner, of complete and accurate information concerning fishing activities, catch, effort, stock assessments, and other research conducted under this section; and

(5) be developed in cooperation with the Councils and affected States, and provide for coordination with the Councils, affected States, and other research entities.

(c) AREAS OF RESEARCH.--Areas of research are as follows:

(1) Research to support fishery conservation and management, including but not limited to, biological research concerning the abundance and life history parameters of stocks of fish, the interdependence of fisheries or stocks of fish, the identification of essential fish habitat, the impact of pollution on fish populations, the impact of wetland and estuarine degradation, and other factors affecting the abundance and availability of fish.

(2) Conservation engineering research, including the study of fish behavior and the development and testing of new gear technology and fishing techniques to minimize bycatch and any adverse effects on essential fish habitat and promote efficient harvest of target species.

(3) Research on the fisheries, including the social, cultural, and economic relationships among fishing vessel owners, crew, United States fish processors, associated shoreside labor, seafood markets and fishing communities.

(4) Information management research, including the development of a fishery information base and an information management system under section 401 that will permit the full use of information in the support of effective fishery conservation and management.

(d) PUBLIC NOTICE.--In developing the plan required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consult with relevant Federal, State, and international agencies, scientific and technical experts, and other interested persons, public and private, and shall publish a proposed plan in the Federal Register for the purpose of receiving public comment on the plan. The Secretary shall ensure that affected commercial fishermen are actively involved in the development of the portion of the plan pertaining to conservation engineering research. Upon final publication in the Federal Register, the plan shall be submitted by the Secretary to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives.

104-297

SEC. 405. INCIDENTAL HARVEST RESEARCH7 16 U.S.C. 1881d

(a) COLLECTION OF INFORMATION.--Within nine months after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall, after consultation with the Gulf Council and South Atlantic Council, conclude the collection of information in the program to assess the impact on fishery resources of incidental harvest by the shrimp trawl fishery within the authority of such Councils. Within the same time period, the Secretary shall make available to the public aggregated summaries of information collected prior to June 30, 1994 under such program.

(b) IDENTIFICATION OF STOCK.--The program concluded pursuant to subsection (a) shall provide for the identification of stocks of fish which are subject to significant incidental harvest in the course of normal shrimp trawl fishing activity.

(c) COLLECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF SPECIFIC STOCK INFORMATION.--For stocks of fish identified pursuant to subsection (b), with priority given to stocks which (based upon the best available scientific information) are considered to be overfished, the Secretary shall conduct--

(1) a program to collect and evaluate information on the nature and extent (including the spatial and temporal distribution) of incidental mortality of such stocks as a direct result of shrimp trawl fishing activities;

(2) an assessment of the status and condition of such stocks, including collection of information which would allow the estimation of life history parameters with sufficient accuracy and precision to support sound scientific evaluation of the effects of various management alternatives on the status of such stocks; and

(3) a program of information collection and evaluation for such stocks on the magnitude and distribution of fishing mortality and fishing effort by sources of fishing mortality other than shrimp trawl fishing activity.

(d) BYCATCH REDUCTION PROGRAM.--Not later than 12 months after the enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall, in cooperation with affected interests, and based upon the best scientific information available, complete a program to--

(1) develop technological devices and other changes in fishing operations necessary and appropriate to minimize the incidental mortality of bycatch in the course of shrimp trawl activity to the extent practicable, taking into account the level of bycatch mortality in the fishery on November 28, 1990;

(2) evaluate the ecological impacts and the benefits and costs of such devices and changes in fishing operations; and

(3) assess whether it is practicable to utilize bycatch which is not avoidable.

(e) REPORT TO CONGRESS.--The Secretary shall, within one year of completing the programs required by this section, submit a detailed report on the results of such programs to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives.

(f) IMPLEMENTATION CRITERIA.--To the extent practicable, any conservation and management measure implemented under this Act to reduce the incidental mortality of bycatch in the course of shrimp trawl fishing shall be consistent with--

(1) measures applicable to fishing throughout the range in United States waters of the bycatch species concerned; and

(2) the need to avoid any serious adverse environmental impacts on such bycatch species or the ecology of the affected area.

104-297

SEC. 406 FISHERIES SYSTEMS RESEARCH 16 U.S.C. 1882

(a) ESTABLISHMENT OF PANEL.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall establish an advisory panel under this Act to develop recommendations to expand the application of ecosystem principles in fishery conservation and management activities.

(b) PANEL MEMBERSHIP.--The advisory panel shall consist of not more than 20 individuals and include--

(1) individuals with expertise in the structures, functions, and physical and biological characteristics of ecosystems; and

(2) representatives from the Councils, States, fishing industry, conservation organizations, or others with expertise in the management of marine resources.

(c) RECOMMENDATIONS.--Prior to selecting advisory panel members, the Secretary shall, with respect to panel members described in subsection (b)(1), solicit recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences.

(d) REPORT.--Within 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a completed report of the panel established under this section, which shall include--

(1) an analysis of the extent to which ecosystem principles are being applied in fishery conservation and management activities, including research activities;

(2) proposed actions by the Secretary and by the Congress that should be undertaken to expand the application of ecosystem principles in fishery conservation and management; and

(3) such other information as may be appropriate.

(e) PROCEDURAL MATTER.--The advisory panel established under this section shall be deemed an advisory panel under section 302(g).

104-297

SEC. 407 GULF OF MEXICO RED SNAPPER RESEARCH 16 U.S.C. 1883

(a) INDEPENDENT PEER REVIEW.--

(1) Within 30 days of the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act, the Secretary shall initiate an independent peer review to evaluate--

(A) the accuracy and adequacy of fishery statistics used by the Secretary for the red snapper fishery in the Gulf of Mexico to account for all commercial, recreational, and charter fishing harvests and fishing effort on the stock;

(B) the appropriateness of the scientific methods, information, and models used by the Secretary to assess the status and trends of the Gulf of Mexico red snapper stock and as the basis for the fishery management plan for the Gulf of Mexico red snapper fishery;

(C) the appropriateness and adequacy of the management measures in the fishery management plan for red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico for conserving and managing the red snapper fishery under this Act; and

(D) the costs and benefits of all reasonable alternatives to an individual fishing quota program for the red snapper fishery in the Gulf of Mexico.

(2) The Secretary shall ensure that commercial, recreational, and charter fishermen in the red snapper fishery in the Gulf of Mexico are provided an opportunity to--

(A) participate in the peer review under this subsection; and

(B) provide information to the Secretary concerning the review of fishery statistics under this subsection without being subject to penalty under this Act or other applicable law for any past violation of a requirement to report such information to the Secretary.

(3) The Secretary shall submit a detailed written report on the findings of the peer review conducted under this subsection to the Gulf Council no later than one year after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act.

(b) PROHIBITION.--In addition to the restrictions under section 303(d)(1)(A), the Gulf Council may not, prior to October 1, 2000, undertake or continue the preparation of any fishery management plan, plan amendment or regulation under this Act for the Gulf of Mexico commercial red snapper fishery that creates an individual fishing quota program or that authorizes the consolidation of licenses, permits, or endorsements that result in different trip limits for vessels in the same class.

(c) REFERENDUM.--

(1) On or after October 1, 2000, the Gulf Council may prepare and submit a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation for the Gulf of Mexico commercial red snapper fishery that creates an individual fishing quota program or that authorizes the consolidation of licenses, permits, or endorsements that result in different trip limits for vessels in the same class, only if the preparation of such plan, amendment, or regulation is approved in a referendum conducted under paragraph (2) and only if the submission to the Secretary of such plan, amendment, or regulation is approved in a subsequent referendum conducted under paragraph (2).

(2) The Secretary, at the request of the Gulf Council, shall conduct referendums under this subsection. Only a person who held an annual vessel permit with a red snapper endorsement for such permit on September 1, 1996 (or any person to whom such permit with such endorsement was transferred after such date) and vessel captains who harvested red snapper in a commercial fishery using such endorsement in each red snapper fishing season occurring between January 1, 1993, and such date may vote in a referendum under this subsection. The referendum shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast. The Secretary shall develop a formula to weigh votes based on the proportional harvest under each such permit and endorsement and by each such captain in the fishery between January 1, 1993, and September 1, 1996. Prior to each referendum, the Secretary, in consultation with the Council, shall--

(A) identify and notify all such persons holding permits with red snapper endorsements and all such vessel captains; and

(B) make available to all such persons and vessel captains information about the schedule, procedures, and eligibility requirements for the referendum and the proposed individual fishing quota program.

(d) CATCH LIMITS.--Any fishery management plan, plan amendment, or regulation submitted by the Gulf Council for the red snapper fishery after the date of enactment of the Sustainable Fisheries Act shall contain conservation and management measures that--

(1) establish separate quotas for recreational fishing (which, for the purposes of this subsection shall include charter fishing) and commercial fishing that, when reached, result in a prohibition on the retention of fish caught during recreational fishing and commercial fishing, respectively, for the remainder of the fishing year; and

(2) ensure that such quotas reflect allocations among such sectors and do not reflect any harvests in excess of such allocations.

Appendix

Mandates to Prepare Reports, Make Recommendations, or Conduct Studies

104-297, sec. 108(f), M-S Act SS 303 note

INDIVIDUAL FISHING QUOTA REPORT.--

(1) Not later than October 1, 1998, the National Academy of Sciences, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and the Regional Fishery Management Councils, shall submit to the Congress a comprehensive final report on individual fishing quotas, which shall include recommendations to implement a national policy with respect to individual fishing quotas. The report shall address all aspects of such quotas, including an analysis of--

(A) the effects of limiting or prohibiting the transferability of such quotas;

(B) mechanisms to prevent foreign control of the harvest of United States fisheries under individual fishing quota programs, including mechanisms to prohibit persons who are not eligible to be deemed a citizen of the United States for the purpose of operating a vessel in the coastwise trade under section 2(a) and section 2(c) of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. 802 (a) and (c)) from holding individual fishing quotas;

(C) the impact of limiting the duration of individual fishing quota programs;

(D) the impact of authorizing Federal permits to process a quantity of fish that correspond to individual fishing quotas, and of the value created for recipients of any such permits, including a comparison of such value to the value of the corresponding individual fishing quotas;

(E) mechanisms to provide for diversity and to minimize adverse social and economic impacts on fishing communities, other fisheries affected by the displacement of vessels, and any impacts associated with the shifting of capital value from fishing vessels to individual fishing quotas, as well as the use of capital construction funds to purchase individual fishing quotas;

(F) mechanisms to provide for effective monitoring and enforcement, including the inspection of fish harvested and incentives to reduce bycatch, and in particular economic discards;

(G) threshold criteria for determining whether a fishery may be considered for individual fishing quota management, including criteria related to the geographical range, population dynamics and condition of a fish stock, the socioeconomic characteristics of a fishery (including participants' involvement in multiple fisheries in the region), and participation by commercial, charter, and recreational fishing sectors in the fishery;

(H) mechanisms to ensure that vessel owners, vessel masters, crew members, and United States fish processors are treated fairly and equitably in initial allocations, to require persons holding individual fishing quotas to be on board the vessel using such quotas, and to facilitate new entry under individual fishing quota programs;

(I) potential social and economic costs and benefits to the nation, individual fishing quota recipients, and any recipients of Federal permits described in subparagraph (D) under individual fishing quota programs, including from capital gains revenue, the allocation of such quotas or permits through Federal auctions, annual fees and transfer fees at various levels, or other measures;

(J) the value created for recipients of individual fishing quotas, including a comparison of such value to the value of the fish harvested under such quotas and to the value of permits created by other types of limited access systems, and the effects of creating such value on fishery management and conservation; and

(K) such other matters as the National Academy of Sciences deems appropriate.

(2) The report shall include a detailed analysis of individual fishing quota programs already implemented in the United States, including the impacts: of any limits on transferability, on past and present participants, on fishing communities, on the rate and total amount of bycatch (including economic and regulatory discards) in the fishery, on the safety of life and vessels in the fishery, on any excess harvesting or processing capacity in the fishery, on any gear conflicts in the fishery, on product quality from the fishery, on the effectiveness of enforcement in the fishery, on the size and composition of fishing vessel fleets, on the economic value created by individual fishing quotas for initial recipients and non-recipients, on conservation of the fishery resource, on fishermen who rely on participation in several fisheries, on the success in meeting any fishery management plan goals, and the fairness and effectiveness of the methods used for allocating quotas and controlling transferability. The report shall also include any information about individual fishing quota programs in other countries that may be useful.

(3) The report shall identify and analyze alternative conservation and management measures, including other limited access systems such as individual transferable effort systems, that could accomplish the same objectives as individual fishing quota programs, as well as characteristics that are unique to individual fishing quota programs.

(4) The Secretary of Commerce shall, in consultation with the National Academy of Sciences, the Councils, the fishing industry, affected States, conservation organizations and other interested persons, establish two individual fishing quota review groups to assist in the preparation of the report, which shall represent:

(A) Alaska, Hawaii, and the other Pacific coastal States; and

(B) Atlantic coastal States and the Gulf of Mexico coastal States. The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, achieve a balanced representation of viewpoints among the individuals on each review group. The review groups shall be deemed to be advisory panels under section 302(g) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act.

(5) The Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the National Academy of Sciences and the Councils, shall conduct public hearings in each Council region to obtain comments on individual fishing quotas for use by the National Academy of Sciences in preparing the report required by this subsection. The National Academy of Sciences shall submit a draft report to the Secretary of Commerce by January 1, 1998. The Secretary of Commerce shall publish in the Federal Register a notice and opportunity for public comment on the draft of the report, or any revision thereof. A detailed summary of comments received and views presented at the hearings, including any dissenting views, shall be included by the National Academy of Sciences in the final report.

104-297, sec. 108(h), M-S Act SS 305 note

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT QUOTA REPORT.--Not later than October 1, 1998, the National Academy of Sciences, in consultation with the Secretary, the North Pacific and Western Pacific Councils, communities and organizations participating in the program, participants in affected fisheries, and the affected States, shall submit to the Secretary of Commerce and Congress a comprehensive report on the performance and effectiveness of the community development quota programs under the authority of the North Pacific and Western Pacific Councils. The report shall--

(1) evaluate the extent to which such programs have met the objective of providing communities with the means to develop ongoing commercial fishing activities;

(2) evaluate the manner and extent to which such programs have resulted in the communities and residents--

(A) receiving employment opportunities in commercial fishing and processing; and

(B) obtaining the capital necessary to invest in commercial fishing, fish processing, and commercial fishing support projects (including infrastructure to support commercial fishing);

(3) evaluate the social and economic conditions in the participating communities and the extent to which alternative private sector employment opportunities exist;

(4) evaluate the economic impacts on participants in the affected fisheries, taking into account the condition of the fishery resource, the market, and other relevant factors;

(5) recommend a proposed schedule for accomplishing the developmental purposes of community development quotas; and

(6) address such other matters as the National Academy of Sciences deems appropriate.

104-297, sec. 116(b), M-S Act SS 312 note

STUDY OF FEDERAL INVESTMENT.--The Secretary of Commerce shall establish a task force comprised of interested parties to study and report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives within 2 years of the date of enactment of this Act on the role of the Federal Government in--

(1) subsidizing the expansion and contraction of fishing capacity in fishing fleets managed under the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.); and

(2) otherwise influencing the aggregate capital investments in fisheries.

104-297, sec. 208, M-S Act SS 404 note

STUDY OF CONTRIBUTION OF BYCATCH TO CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS.

(a) STUDY.--The Secretary of Commerce shall conduct a study of the contribution of bycatch to charitable organizations by commercial fishermen. The study shall include determinations of--

(1) the amount of bycatch that is contributed each year to charitable organizations by commercial fishermen;

(2) the economic benefits to commercial fishermen from those contributions; and

(3) the impact on fisheries of the availability of those benefits.

(b) REPORT- Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the Congress a report containing determinations made in the study under subsection (a).

(c) BYCATCH DEFINED.--In this section the term 'bycatch' has the meaning given that term in section 3 of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by section 102 of this Act.

104-297, sec. 104(g) [uncodified]

RUSSIAN FISHING IN THE BERING SEA.--No later than September 30, 1997, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, in consultation with the North Pacific and Bering Sea Advisory Body, shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives a report describing the institutional structures in Russia pertaining to stock assessment, management, and enforcement for fishery harvests in the Bering Sea, and recommendations for improving coordination between the United States and Russia for managing and conserving Bering Sea fishery resources of mutual concern.

104-297, sec. 108(g) [uncodified]

NORTH PACIFIC LOAN PROGRAM.--

(1) By not later than October 1, 1997 the North Pacific Fishery Management Council shall recommend to the Secretary of Commerce a program which uses the full amount of fees authorized to be used under section 303(d)(4) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended by this Act, in the halibut and sablefish fisheries off Alaska to guarantee obligations in accordance with such section.

(2)(A) For the purposes of this subsection, the phrase 'fishermen who fish from small vessels' in section 303(d)(4)(A)(i) of such Act shall mean fishermen wishing to purchase individual fishing quotas for use from Category B, Category C, or Category D vessels, as defined in part 676.20(c) of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (as revised as of October 1, 1995), whose aggregate ownership of individual fishing quotas will not exceed the equivalent of a total of 50,000 pounds of halibut and sablefish harvested in the fishing year in which a guarantee application is made if the guarantee is approved, who will participate aboard the fishing vessel in the harvest of fish caught under such quotas, who have at least 150 days of experience working as part of the harvesting crew in any United States commercial fishery, and who do not own in whole or in part any Category A or Category B vessel, as defined in such part and title of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(B) For the purposes of this subsection, the phrase "entry level fishermen" in section 303(d)(4)(A)(ii) of such Act shall mean fishermen who do not own any individual fishing quotas, who wish to obtain the equivalent of not more than a total of 8,000 pounds of halibut and sablefish harvested in the fishing year in which a guarantee application is made, and who will participate aboard the fishing vessel in the harvest of fish caught under such quotas.

104-297, sec. 209 [uncodified]

STUDY OF IDENTIFICATION METHODS FOR HARVEST STOCKS.

(a) IN GENERAL.--The Secretary of Commerce shall conduct a study to determine the best possible method of identifying various Atlantic and Pacific salmon and steelhead stocks in the ocean at time of harvest. The study shall include an assessment of--

(1) coded wire tags;

(2) fin clipping; and

(3) other identification methods.

(b) REPORT.--The Secretary shall report the results of the study, together with any recommendations for legislation deemed necessary based on the study, within 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act to the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

104-297, sec. 210 [uncodified]

REVIEW OF NORTHEAST FISHERY STOCK ASSESSMENTS.

The National Academy of Sciences, in consultation with regionally recognized fishery experts, shall conduct a peer review of Canadian and United States stock assessments, information collection methodologies, biological assumptions and projections, and other relevant scientific information used as the basis for conservation and management in the Northeast multispecies fishery. The National Academy of Sciences shall submit the results of such review to the Congress and the Secretary of Commerce no later than March 1, 1997.

[J.Feder version 12/19/96]

[ ]1 Section 102(10) of Public Law 104-297 appears to codify the definition of "special areas" at paragraph 36 after the definition of "State." Section 405(a) of Public Law 104-297 appears to add a redundant definition of "special areas" and create numerous numbering conflicts in the definitions. The editors assume Congress intends to add one definition of "special areas" in alphabetical order.

[ ]2 The editors assume this reference should be to section 111(b) of the Sustainable Fisheries Act (P.L. 104-297). See the note about Demonstration Projects after section 305 of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

[ ]3 Former paragraph (3) now appears at section 301(a)(3) and section 304(g).

[ ]4 Section 110(b)(2) of Public Law 104-297 appears to insert "or overfishing" after "emergency" each place it appears in section 305(c)(1) and (2). The editors assume Congress did not intend to insert "or overfishing" between the words "emergency" and "regulations".

[ ]5 Section 110(b)(3)(A) of Public Law 104-297 says to insert "or interim measure" after "emergency regulation" (singular) each place it appears in section 305(c)(3) of the Magnuson Act. The editors assume Congress also intended "or interim measures" (plural) be inserted after "emergency regulations" (plural).

[ ]6 Section 115(e) of Public Law 104-297 "amends" SS 311(i) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act by: (1) inserting "201(b) or (c), or section 204(d)," and (2) striking "201(b), (c),". Since SS 311 does not include a subsection (i), the editors assume Congress intended to revise subsection (h). Since the words "201(b), (c)," do not appear in SS 311(h), the editors assume Congress intended to strike the words "201(b) or (c),".

[7] Sections 116, 203, 204, 205, and 206 of Public Law 104-297 "amend" sections of the Magnuson-Stevens Act that do not exist (specifically, sections 312, 402, 403, 404, and 405). The editors assume Congress intended to "add" new sections.