STATUS OF FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES
REPORT TO CONGRESS

SEPTEMBER 1997

Table of Contents
       Executive Summary
       Introduction
       Listing of Species
       Basis for Determining Status of Overfishing
       Results
       Conclusion
 
  Tables
 
Table A1 Summary of Stock Status for Species Contained in Federal Fishery Management Plans
Table A2 Summary of Stock Status for Species not Contained in Federal Fishery Management Plans
Table A3 Species Contained in Federal Fishery Management Plans Under Development
  Appendices
 
Appendix 1 Overfishing Definitions Contained in Fishery Management Plans
Appendix 2 Overfishing Definitions for Species not Contained in Federal Fishery Management Plans
Appendix 3 Overfishing Definitions from Fishery Management Plans Under Development
Appendix 4 Six Tiers comprising the Overfishing Definition for Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Groundfish
Appendix 5 Acronyms used in Appendices

Executive Summary

The Sustainable Fisheries Act [SFA (Public Law 104-297)], which reauthorizes and amends the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) was signed into law by President Clinton on October 11, 1996. The reauthorized Magnuson-Stevens Act requires the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) to report to Congress annually on the status of fisheries within each Council's geographical area of authority and identify those fisheries that are overfished or are approaching a condition of being overfished.

Although this report identifies a significant number of stocks that are overfished, the list will likely be expanded in the next year or two as the provisions of the SFA are fully implemented. In accordance with the requirements of the SFA, the basis for the identification of overfished stocks is the current overfishing definition found in the Fishery Management Plans (FMPs). The SFA also defined "overfished" and "overfishing," and required that FMP definitions, amended to be consistent with the new statutory definition, be submitted to the Secretary by October 11, 1998. As these new FMP definitions are submitted and approved, additional stocks will likely be identified as overfished.

Based on the criteria specified in the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the Report on the Status of Fisheries finds that 86 species are listed as "overfished," 183 species are listed as "not overfished," and 10 species are considered to be approaching an overfished condition; for 448 species, the status relative to overfishing is unknown. Whenever possible, species were assessed using existing overfishing definitions in FMPs or FMPs under development; the remainder were evaluated using the 1995 edition of Our Living Oceans.


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Introduction

This report to Congress responds to section 304(e)(1) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, as amended by the SFA on October 11, 1996:

(1) The Secretary shall report annually to the Congress and the Councils on the status of fisheries within each Council's geographical area of authority and identify those fisheries that are overfished or are approaching a condition of being overfished. For those fisheries managed under a fishery management plan or international agreement, the status shall be determined using the criteria for overfishing specified in such plan or agreement. A fishery shall be classified as approaching a condition of being overfished if, based on trends in fishing effort, fishery resource size, and other appropriate factors, the Secretary estimates that the fishery will become overfished within two years.

This report constitutes the National Marine Fisheries Service's (NMFS) first annual report to Congress and the Councils in compliance with section 304(e)(1).


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Listing of Species

There are currently 39 approved and implemented FMPs and 5 FMPs under development; there are numerous other fisheries in the U.S. EEZ for which there are no FMPs at this time. Some FMPs contain only one or a few species in the management unit, while others contain more than 100 species. To assess fully the status of the fish stocks within the U.S. EEZ, individual species were broken out to the extent possible for each fishery or FMP, and each species was separately assessed.

A table was created listing each species within a management unit identified in an FMP, the associated management body, a determination of whether the species is overfished, a determination of whether it is approaching an overfished condition, and the basis of the overfishing definition (see Table A1). Similar tables were created for species not contained in FMPs (Table A2), and for species contained in FMPs under development (Table A3). Species to be included in Table A2 were identified by NMFS as those for which a substantial portion of the stock occurs within the EEZ.


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Basis for Determining Status of Overfishing

As required by section 304(e)(1) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, for those species managed under an FMP or international agreement, the status determination was based on the criteria for overfishing (i.e., the overfishing definition) specified in the FMP or agreement whenever possible (see Appendices 1, 2, 3, and 4). For most species, the existing overfishing definitions are based wholly or in part on a fishing mortality rate. Such definitions typically assess the species on the basis of whether overfishing (as a rate of removals) is currently taking place (i.e., whether the current fishing mortality rate is greater than the maximum allowable rate specified in the definition). FMPs that base their definition on something other than a fishing mortality rate, such as stock biomass, typically assess overfishing of the species on the basis of the current status of the stock relative to a stock or index level specified in the definition of overfishing. To distinguish the type of definition applied, the tables include a column providing the basis of the overfishing definition.

For all species for which there is an approved overfishing definition contained in the FMP or an overfishing definition contained in the FMP under development, the status of the stock relative to the FMP definition was used to determine the status of the species and whether or not it is approaching an overfished condition. Species (1) for which there are no FMPs or international agreements, but that are under the Councils' geographic area of authority or under the Secretary's management authority pursuant to section 302(a)(3); (2) that are contained in an FMP or an FMP under development, but that do not have an overfishing definition; or (3) for which the overfishing definition is inadequate to make a determination of overfishing, the 1995 edition of Our Living Oceans (OLO) was used to determine the status relative to overfishing. In OLO, the term "overfishing" is not used, but a similar concept, which relates the stock size to the stock size that would produce "Long Term Potential Yield" (LTPY) is used. Species that are listed in OLO as "below" and "far below" stock levels necessary to produce LTPY are considered "overfished," and those listed as "near" and "above" stock levels necessary to produce LTPY are considered "not overfished." The SFA defines "overfished" as a rate or level of fishing mortality that jeopardizes the capacity of a fishery to produce the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) on a continuing basis. LTPY, as used in OLO, is analogous to MSY. Thus, the conclusions reached in OLO approximate the conclusions that would be drawn if an assessment had been made using the SFA's generic definition of "overfished." OLO determinations are considered stock level based definitions. Because OLO does not make a determination of whether the stock is "approaching an overfished condition," that determination could not be made for those species assessed using OLO. For species that have no overfishing definition or for which there is no determination of stock status in OLO, the overfished status is listed as "Unknown" and the basis of overfishing definition is listed as "No Definition."

Information regarding the overfished status of species is continually evolving and has become available since the most recent publication of OLO. For those cases for which there is updated information in a citable form, that information was used to determine the status of each species in this report. It is recognized that this approach may not include all "preliminary" information for each species. However, this approach is taken to minimize potential confusion as conclusions about stock conditions change with changes in "preliminary" information. For example, the conclusions reached in OLO regarding the overfished status of spiny dogfish, Atlantic halibut, and tilefish may not agree with additional, not yet citable, information that has become available since the publication of OLO.


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Results

Using the methodology described above to assess the status of the fisheries, there are currently 86 species classified as "overfished," 183 species classified as "not overfished," 10 species that are "approaching an overfished condition," and 448 species whose status is unknown. The categories "not overfished" and "approaching an overfished condition" are mutually exclusive. Any species listed as "approaching an overfished condition" (because it is estimated that it will become "overfished" within 2 years) is not included in the "not overfished" category, even though it is currently not overfished. This is to eliminate double-counting of the species analyzed in this report.

The following table provides a breakdown of the assessed species:
Number of Stocks under Council's Geographical Area of Authority Jurisdiction Overfished Not Overfished Approaching Overfished Condition Unknown
26 NEFMC 12 7 2 5
11 MAFMC 5 6 0 0
9 NEFMC / MAFMC 1 1 0 7
84 SAFMC 14 5 0 65
69 GMFMC 4 6 1 58
10 SAFMC / GMFMC 1 5 0 4
179 CFMC 3 1 0 175
109 PFMC 13 16 6 74
64 WPFMC 3 47 1 13
105 NPFMC 0 63 0 42
1 PFMC / NPFMC 0 1 0 0
50 HMS 26 21 0 3
8 ASMFC 4 3 0 1
2 GSMFC 0 1 0 1
Total 86 183 10 448

Conclusion

Based on the identifications made in this report, the Councils are now required to develop programs to end overfishing and rebuild some 76 overfished stocks, and to prevent overfishing from occurring for the 10 stocks that are approaching an overfished condition. This involves at least 19 FMPs that will have to be submitted for approval within the next year. There are also 10 stocks that are overfished but are not covered by FMPs; plans must be developed to end overfishing and rebuild affected stocks in these fisheries in the same timeframe. The rebuilding programs must be as short as possible, but not exceed 10 years, except in cases where the biology of the stock of fish, other environmental conditions, or management measures under an international agreement in which the United States participates dictate otherwise.

The majority of stocks (61%) identified in this report were assessed as unknown in terms of their status relative to overfishing; there are 428 stocks that are contained in FMPs whose status is unknown and 20 stocks not contained in FMPs whose status is unknown. Additional efforts to obtain information necessary to assess these stocks will be required before their status can be determined. As the status of these stocks become known, some will require that measures be taken to end or prevent overfishing in fisheries managed under an FMP, and others will require that an FMP be developed.

Under the amended provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the Councils will be required to reassess each FMP for compliance with the overfishing provisions. Many of the FMPs will require amendments to bring them into conformance. In particular, each overfishing definition will need to be examined on the basis of its ability to ensure stock levels that can produce MSY on a continuing basis, rather than simply addressing recruitment overfishing, as is typically the case in many existing FMPs. Based on this change, it is possible that many species that are now classified as "not overfished" in this report on the basis of a fishing mortality rate definition will ultimately be reassessed as "overfished" when the FMPs and overfishing definitions are amended consistent with the new requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Consequently, this report represents a minimum number of overfished fisheries of the United States, and will probably understate the number of fisheries that will eventually be determined to be overfished.


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Table A1. Summary of Stock Status for Species Contained in Federal Fishery Management Plans
Fishery Management Plan Stock Jurisdiction Overfished? Approaching Overfished Condition? Basis of Overfishing Definition
Atlantic Sea Scallop Atlantic Sea Scallop NEFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Salmon Atlantic Salmon NEFMC Yes(1) N/A Stock Level
American Lobster American Lobster NEFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies Cod Gulf of Maine NEFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Georges Bank NEFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies Haddock Georges Bank NEFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Maine NEFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies Yellowtail Flounder Georges Bank NEFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Southern New England NEFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Cape Cod NEFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Middle Atlantic NEFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies American Plaice NEFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies Redfish NEFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies Witch Flounder NEFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies White Hake NEFMC No Yes Stock Level
Northeast Multispecies Pollock NEFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies Windowpane Flounder NEFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
Northeast Multispecies Winter Flounder Georges Bank NEFMC Unknown(2) Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Maine NEFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Southern New England NEFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Northeast Multispecies Silver Hake Gulf of Maine / North Georges Bank NEFMC No Yes Stock Level
South Georges Bank / Middle Atlantic NEFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
Northeast Multispecies Red Hake NEFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
Northeast Multispecies Ocean Pout NEFMC No No Stock Level
Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Scup MAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Summer Flounder MAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Black Sea Bass MAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Bluefish Bluefish (except Gulf of Mexico) MAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Surf Clam MAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Ocean Quahog MAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Squid Illex MAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Loligo MAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Atlantic Mackerel MAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Butterfish (Atlantic) MAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate / Stock Level
South Atlantic Golden Crab Golden Crab SAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Shrimp White Shrimp SAFMC No No Stock Level
South Atlantic Shrimp Rock Shrimp SAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Shrimp Brown Shrimp SAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Shrimp Pink Shrimp SAFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Jewfish SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Nassau Grouper SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Vermilion Snapper SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Red Porgy SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Gag SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Red Snapper SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Scamp SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Speckled Hind SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Snowy Grouper SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Warsaw Grouper SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Golden Tilefish SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper White Grunt SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Black Sea Bass SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Gray Triggerfish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Queen Triggerfish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Ocean Triggerfish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Yellow Jack SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Blue Runner SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Crevalle Jack SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Bar Jack SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Greater Amberjack SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Lesser Amberjack SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Almaco Jack SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Banded Rudderfish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Spadefish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Black Margate SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Porkfish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Margate SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Tomtate SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Smallmouth Grunt SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper French Grunt SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Spanish Grunt SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Cottonwick SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Sailors Choice SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Blue Stripe Grunt SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Hogfish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Puddingwife SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Black Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Queen Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Mutton Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Schoolmaster SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Blackfin Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Cubera Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Gray Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Mahogany Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Dog Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Lane Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Silk Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Yellowtail Snapper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Blueline Tilefish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Sand Tilefish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Wreckfish SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Bank Sea Bass SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Rock Sea Bass SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Rock Hind SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Graysby SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Yellowedge Grouper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Coney SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Red Hind SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Red Grouper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Misty Grouper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Black Grouper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Yellowmouth Grouper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Tiger Grouper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Yellowfin Grouper SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Sheepshead SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Grass Porgy SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Jolthead Porgy SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Saucereye Porgy SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Whitebone Porgy SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Knobbed Porgy SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Longspine Porgy SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Scup SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Coast Red Drum Red Drum SAFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Corals(3) Fire Corals SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Corals3 Hydrocorals SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Corals3 Octocorals SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Corals3 Stony Corals SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
South Atlantic Corals3 Black Corals SAFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Mexico Stone Crab Stone Crab GMFMC No No Stock Level
Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Brown Shrimp GMFMC No No Stock Level
Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Pink Shrimp GMFMC No No Stock Level
Gulf of Mexico Shrimp White Shrimp GMFMC No No Stock Level
Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Royal Red Shrimp GMFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Rock Shrimp GMFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition(4)
Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Seabob Shrimp GMFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition4
Gulf of Mexico Corals(5) Fire Corals GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Mexico Corals5 Hydrocorals GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Mexico Corals5 Octocorals GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Mexico Corals5 Stony Corals GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Mexico Corals5 Black Corals GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Mexico / South Atlantic Spiny Lobster Spiny Lobster SAFMC / GMFMC No No Stock Level
Gulf of Mexico / South Atlantic Spiny Lobster Slipper Lobster SAFMC / GMFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition(6)
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic King Mackerel Gulf group SAFMC / GMFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic King Mackerel Atlantic group SAFMC / GMFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel Gulf group SAFMC / GMFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel Atlantic group SAFMC / GMFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Cobia SAFMC/ GMFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Cero SAFMC / GMFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition4
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Dolphin SAFMC / GMFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition4
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Little Tunny SAFMC / GMFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Bluefish (Gulf of Mexico only) GMFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper GMFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Nassau Grouper GMFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Jewfish GMFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Vermilion Snapper GMFMC No Yes Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Greater Amberjack GMFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Gray Triggerfish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Queen Triggerfish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Lesser Amberjack GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Almaco Jack GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Banded Rudderfish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Tomtate GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico White Grunt GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Pigfish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Hogfish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Queen Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Mutton Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Schoolmaster GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Blackfin Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Cubera Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Gray (Mangrove) Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Dog Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Mahogany Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Lane Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Silk Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Yellowtail Snapper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Wenchman GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Goldface Tilefish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Blackline Tilefish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Anchor Tilefish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Blueline Tilefish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Tilefish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Bank Sea Bass GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Rock Sea Bass GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Black Sea Bass GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Dwarf Sand Perch GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Sand Perch GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Rock Hind GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Speckled Hind GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Yellowedge Grouper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Red Hind GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Red Grouper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Misty Grouper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Warsaw Grouper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Snowy Grouper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Black Grouper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Yellowmouth Grouper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Gag GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Scamp GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Yellowfin Grouper GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Grass Porgy GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Jolthead Porgy GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Knobbed Porgy GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Littlehead Porgy GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Pinfish GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico Red Porgy GMFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Mexico Red Drum Red Drum GMFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Spiny Lobster(7) Spiny Lobster CFMC No Unknown(8) Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish(9) Nassau Grouper CFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Jewfish CFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Ocean Surgeonfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Doctorfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Blue Tang CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Frogfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Flamefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Conchfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Trumpetfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Scrawled Filefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Queen Triggerfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Whitespotted Filefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Ocean Triggerfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Black Durgon CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Sargassum Triggerfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Redlip Blenny CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Peacock Flounder CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellow Jack CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Blue Runner CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Horse-eye Jack CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Black Jack CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Bar Jack CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Greater Amberjack CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Almaco Jack CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Longsnout Butterflyfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Foureye Butterflyfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Spotfin Butterflyfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Banded Butterflyfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Redspotted Hawkfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Flying Gurnard CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Atlantic Spadefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Neon Goby CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Rusty Goby CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Royal Gramma CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Porkfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Margate CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Tomtate CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 French Grunt CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 White Grunt CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Bluestriped Grunt CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Squirrelfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Longspine Squirrelfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Blackbar Soldierfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Cardinal Soldierfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Spanish Hogfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Creole Wrasse CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellowcheek Wrasse CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellowhead Wrasse CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Clown Wrasse CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Puddingwife CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Pearly Razorfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Green Razorfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Hogfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Bluehead Wrasse CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Black Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Queen Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Mutton Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Schoolmaster CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Blackfin Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Gray Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Dog Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Mahogany Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Lane Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Silk Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellowtail Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Wenchman CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Vermilion Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Blackline Tilefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Sand Tilefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellow Goatfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Spotted Goatfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Chain Moray CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Green Moray CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Goldentail Moray CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Batfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Goldspotted Eel CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellowhead Jawfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Dusky Jawfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Spotted Trunkfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Honeycomb Cowfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Scrawled Cowfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Trunkfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Smooth Trunkfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Cherubfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Queen Angelfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Rock Beauty CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Gray Angelfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 French Angelfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Sergeant Major CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Blue Chromis CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Sunshinefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellowtail Damselfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Dusky Damselfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Beaugregory CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Bicolor Damselfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Threespot Damselfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Bigeye CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Glasseye Snapper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Midnight Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Blue Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Striped Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Rainbow Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Princess Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Queen Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Redband Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Redtail Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Redfin Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Stoplight Parrotfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 High-hat CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Jackknife-fish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Spotted Drum CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Scorpionfishes CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Rock Hind CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Graysby CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellowedge Grouper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Coney CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Red Hind CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Red Grouper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Misty Grouper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Butter Hamlet CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Swissguard Basslet CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Yellowfin Grouper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Tiger Grouper CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Creole-fish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Greater Soapfish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Orangeback Bass CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Lantern Bass CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Tobaccofish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Harlequin Bass CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Chalk Bass CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Caribbean Tonguefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Sea Bream CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Jolthead Porgy CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Sheepshead Porgy CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Pluma CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Seahorses CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Pipefishes CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Sand Diver CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Sharpnose Puffer CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Reef Fish9 Porcupinefish CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Queen Conch(10) Queen Conch CFMC Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Atlantic Triton's Trumpet CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Cameo Helmet CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Caribbean Helmet CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Caribbean Vase CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Flame Helmet CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Green Star Shell CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Hawkwing Conch CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Milk Conch CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Roostertail Conch CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 True Tulip CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 West Indian Fighting Conch CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Queen Conch10 Whelk (West Indian Top Shell) CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Corals(11) Sponges CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Hydrocorals CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Hydroids CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Soft Corals CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Gorgonian Corals CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Hard Corals CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Black Corals CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Anemones CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Colonial Anemones CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 False Corals CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Annelid Worms CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Other Gastropods CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Bivalves CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Cephalopods CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Crustaceans CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Bryozoans CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Feather Stars CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Sea Stars CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Brittle and Basket Stars CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Sea Urchins CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Sea Cucumbers CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Tunicates CFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Caribbean Corals11 Green Algae CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Corals11 Red Algae CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Caribbean Corals11 Seagrasses CFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition6
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chum Salmon PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Columbia River, upriver Summer) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Columbia River, upriver Spring) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Columbia River, Snake River, Spring) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Skagit River, Spring) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Skagit River, Summer / Fall) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Stillaguamish River, Summer / Fall) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Snohomish River, Summer / Fall) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Lake Washington) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Chinook Salmon (Dungeness River) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Coho Salmon (Strait of Juan de Fuca) PFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon other Chinook Salmon stocks PFMC No No Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon other Coho Salmon stocks PFMC No No Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Pink Salmon PFMC No No Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Salmon Sockeye Salmon PFMC No No Stock Level
Northern Anchovy Northern Anchovy PFMC No No Stock Level
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Lingcod PFMC No Yes Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Canary Rockfish PFMC No Yes Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Pacific Ocean Perch PFMC No Yes Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Shortspine Thornyhead PFMC No Yes Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Bocaccio PFMC No Yes Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Yellowtail Rockfish PFMC No Yes Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Pacific Whiting PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Sablefish PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Dover Sole PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish English Sole PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Petrale Sole PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Chilipepper Rockfish PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Shortbelly Rockfish PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Longspine Thornyhead PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Widow Rockfish PFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Jack Mackerel PFMC No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Pacific Cod PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Arrowtooth Flounder PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Butter Sole PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Curlfin Sole PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Flathead Sole PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Pacific Sanddab PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Rex Sole PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Rock Sole PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Sand Sole PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Starry Flounder PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Aurora Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Bank Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Black Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Black-and-Yellow Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Blackgill Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Blue Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Bronzespotted Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Brown Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Calico Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish China Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Copper Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Darkblotched Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Dusty Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Flag Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Gopher Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Grass Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Greenblotched Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Greenspotted Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Greenstriped Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Harlequin Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Honeycomb Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Kelp Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Mexican Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Olive Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Pink Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Quillback Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Redbanded Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Redstripe Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Rosethorn Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Rosy Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Rougheye Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Sharpchin Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Shortraker Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Silvergray Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Speckled Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Splitnose Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Squarespot Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Starry Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Stripetail Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Tiger Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Vermilion Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Yelloweye Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Yellowmouth Rockfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Leopard Shark PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Soupfin Shark PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Spiny Dogfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Big Skate PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish California Skate PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Longnose Skate PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Ratfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Fingerling Codling PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Pacific Rattail PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Cabezon PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Kelp Greenling PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish California Scorpionfish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Cowcod PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
WA, OR, CA Groundfish Treefish PFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Western Pacific Crustaceans Spiny Lobster (2 species) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Crustaceans Slipper Lobster WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Corals(12) Pink Corals (3 species) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Corals12 Gold Corals (4 species) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Corals12 Bamboo Corals (2 species) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Corals12 Black Corals (3 species) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Pelagic Armorhead WPFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Squirrelfish Snapper (Main Hawaiian Islands) WPFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Longtail Snapper (Main Hawaiian Islands) WPFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Seabass (Main Hawaiian Islands) WPFMC No Yes Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Squirrelfish Snapper (Northwest Hawaiian Islands) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Longtail Snapper (Northwest Hawaiian Islands) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Silverjaw Jobfish WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Gray Jobfish WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Bluestripe Snapper WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Yellowtail Snapper WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Pink Snapper WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Yelloweye Snapper WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Snapper Pristipomoides sieboldil WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Snapper Pristipomoides zonatus WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Giant Trevally WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Black Jack WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Thick Lipped Trevally WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Amberjack WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Blacktip Grouper WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Seabass (Northwest Hawaiian Islands) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Lunartail Grouper WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Ambon Emperor WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Redgill Emperor WPFMC No No Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Alfonsin WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific Ratfish WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Yellowfin Tuna (Central Western Pacific) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Albacore (South Pacific) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Albacore (North Pacific) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Yellowfin Tuna (Eastern Tropical Pacific) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Skipjack Tuna (Central Western Pacific) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Skipjack Tuna (Eastern Tropical Pacific) WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Striped Marlin WPFMC No No Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Black Marlin WPFMC No Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Bigeye Tuna (Pacific) WPFMC No Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Other tuna relatives Auxis spp. WPFMC No Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Other tuna relatives Scomber spp. WPFMC No Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Other tuna relatives Allothunnus spp. WPFMC No Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Swordfish (Pacific) WPFMC No Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Sailfish (Pacific) WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Shortbill Spearfish (Pacific) WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Wahoo (Pacific) WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Mahimahi (Pacific) WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Pelagic Sharks (Pacific) WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Blue Marlin (Pacific) WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Opah WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Oilfish WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Western Pacific Pelagics Escolar WPFMC Unknown Unknown Stock Level
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Walleye Pollock NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Pacific Cod NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Sablefish NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Atka Mackerel NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Thornyhead Rockfish NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Dusky Rockfish NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Dover Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Flathead Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Rex Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Arrowtooth Flounder NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Pacific Ocean Perch NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Shortraker Rockfish NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Rougheye Rockfish NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Sculpins NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Sharks NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Skates NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Eulachon NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Smelts NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Capelin NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Rock Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Rattail NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Squid NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Octopus NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Greenland Turbot NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Black Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Blue Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Widow Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Yellowtail Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Canary Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish China Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Copper Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Quillback Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Rosethorn Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Tiger Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Yelloweye Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Aurora Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Blackgill Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Bocaccio Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Chilipepper Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Darkblotch Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Greenstriped Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Harlequin Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Pygmy Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Redbanded Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Redstripe Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Sharpchin Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Shortbelly Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Silvergray Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Splitnose Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Stripetail Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Vermilion Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Yellowmouth Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Alaska High Seas Salmon Pink Salmon NPFMC No No Stock Level
Alaska High Seas Salmon Sockeye Salmon NPFMC No No Stock Level
Alaska High Seas Salmon Chum Salmon NPFMC No No Stock Level
Alaska High Seas Salmon Coho Salmon NPFMC No No Stock Level
Alaska High Seas Salmon Chinook Salmon NPFMC No No Stock Level
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Walleye Pollock NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Pacific Cod NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Yellowfin Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Greenland Turbot NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Arrowtooth Flounder NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Rock Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Flathead Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Sablefish NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Pacific Ocean Perch NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Sharpchin / Northern Rockfish NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Shortraker / Rougheye Rockfish NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Atka Mackerel NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Squid NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Alaska Plaice NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Rex Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Butter Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Longhead Dab NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Dover Sole NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Starry Flounder NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Rattails NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Shortspine Thornyhead NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Sculpins NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Sharks NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Skates NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Eulachon NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Smelts NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Capelin NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Octopus NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Dusky Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Darkblotched Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Yelloweye Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish Blue Rockfish NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Blue King Crab Pribilof Islands NPFMC No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Blue King Crab Saint Matthew Island NPFMC No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Blue King Crab Saint Lawrence Island NPFMC Unknown2 Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Blue King Crab Brown King Crab Aleutians NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Brown King Crab Pribilof Islands NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Brown King Crab Northern District NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Red King Crab Bristol Bay NPFMC No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Red King Crab Norton Sound NPFMC No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Red King Crab Pribilof Islands NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King & Tanner Crabs Red King Crab Aleutians NPFMC Unknown Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs Bering Sea Snow Crab NPFMC No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs Tanner Crab Bering Sea NPFMC No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs Tanner Crab Eastern Aleutians NPFMC Unknown2 Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs Tanner Crab Adak (Western Aleutians) NPFMC Unknown2 Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Alaska Scallops Alaska Scallops NPFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Swordfish Swordfish (North Atlantic) HMS Yes1 N/A Stock Level
Atlantic Billfishes Blue Marlin (North Atlantic) HMS Yes1 N/A Stock Level
Atlantic Billfishes White Marlin (North Atlantic) HMS Yes1 N/A Stock Level
Atlantic Billfishes Sailfish (West Atlantic) HMS Unknown Unknown No Definition4
Atlantic Billfishes Spearfish (West Atlantic) HMS Unknown Unknown No Definition6
Atlantic Sharks Sandbar Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Blacktip Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Dusky Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Spinner Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Silky Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Bull Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Bignose Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Narrowtooth Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Galapagos Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Night Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Caribbean Reef Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Tiger Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Lemon Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Sand Tiger Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Bigeye Sand Tiger Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Nurse Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Scalloped Hammerhead Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Great Hammerhead Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Smooth Hammerhead Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Whale Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Basking Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks White Shark HMS Yes N/A Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Atlantic Sharpnose Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Caribbean Sharpnose Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Finetooth Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Blacknose Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Smalltail Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Bonnethead Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Atlantic Angel Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Shortfin Mako Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Longfin Mako Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Porbeagle Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Thresher Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Bigeye Thresher Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Blue Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Oceanic Whitetip Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Sevengill Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Sixgill Shark HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate
Atlantic Sharks Bigeye Sixgill Sharks HMS No Unknown Fishing Mortality Rate


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Table A2. Summary of Stock Status for Species not Contained in Federal Fishery Management Plans

Stock Jurisdiction Overfished? Approaching Overfished Condition? Basis of Overfishing Definition
Atlantic Halibut NEFMC Yes(13) N/A Stock Level
Tilefish MAFMC Yes13 N/A Stock Level
Little Skate NEFMC / MAFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition(14)
Winter Skate NEFMC / MAFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition14
Barndoor Skate NEFMC / MAFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition14
Thorny Skate NEFMC / MAFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition14
Brier Skate NEFMC / MAFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition14
Leopard Skate NEFMC / MAFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition14
Smooth-tailed Skate NEFMC / MAFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition14
Weakfish ASMFC Yes13 N/A Stock Level
Spotted Seatrout ASMFC Yes13 N/A Stock Level
Spot ASMFC Unknown Unknown No Definition(15)
Atlantic Croaker ASMFC Yes13 N/A Stock Level
Atlantic Menhaden ASMFC No13 Unknown Stock Level
Striped Bass ASMFC No13 Unknown Stock Level
Northern Shrimp ASMFC No13 Unknown Stock Level
Atlantic Sturgeon ASMFC Yes13 N/A Stock Level
Gulf Menhaden GSMFC No13 Unknown Stock Level
Black Drum GSMFC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
Pacific Bonito PFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
California Barracuda PFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
White Seabass PFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
White Croaker PFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
Yellowtail PFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
Giant Squid PFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
Mackerel Scad WPFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
Bigeye Scad WPFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15
Pacific Halibut PFMC and NPFMC(16) No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Sea Snails NPFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition15

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Table A3. Species Contained in Federal Fishery Management Plans Under Development
Stock Jurisdiction Overfished? Approaching Overfished Condition? Basis of Overfishing Definition
Bigeye Tuna (Atlantic) HMS No13 Unknown Stock Level
Albacore (North Atlantic) HMS No13 Unknown Stock Level
Yellowfin Tuna (West Atlantic) HMS No13 Unknown Stock Level
Skipjack Tuna (West Atlantic) HMS No13 Unknown Stock Level
Bluefin Tuna (West Atlantic) HMS Yes13 N/A Stock Level
Bonito (Atlantic) HMS Unknown Unknown No Definition14
Atlantic Herring NEFMC No No Fishing Mortality Rate
Monkfish NEFMC / MAFMC Yes N/A Stock Level
Spiny Dogfish NEFMC / MAFMC No13 Unknown Stock Level
Pacific Sardine PFMC Yes13 N/A Stock Level
Pacific (Chub) Mackerel PFMC Yes13 N/A Stock Level
Jack Mackerel PFMC No13 Unknown Stock Level
Market Squid PFMC Unknown Unknown No Definition14


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1. Used assessment from Our Living Oceans; FMP contains no overfishing definition.

2. Current fishing mortality estimate for this stock is unknown.

3. The full name for this FMP is the Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live / Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region.

4. There is no overfishing definition contained in the FMP; the definition for determining the overfished status is based on the definition in Our Living Oceans.

5. The full name for this FMP is the Coral and Coral Reefs of the Gulf of Mexico.

6. There is no overfishing definition contained in the FMP, and no definition for determining the overfished status in Our Living Oceans.

7. The full name for this FMP is the Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

8. Stock assessment is 6 years old.

9. The full name for this FMP is the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

10. The full name for this FMP is the Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

11. The full name for this FMP is the Corals and Reef Associated Invertebrates of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

12. The full name for this FMP is the Precious Corals Fishery of the Western Pacific Region.

13. Used assessment from Our Living Oceans; there is no FMP for this species.

14. There is no FMP for this species, and no definition for determining the overfished status in Our Living Oceans.

15. There is no FMP for this species; the definition for determining the overfished status is based on the definition in Our Living Oceans.

16. The resource is managed by treaty between the United States and Canada through recommendations of the International Pacific Halibut Commission. Pacific halibut is managed under the jurisdiction of the PFMC for WA, OR, and CA and under the jurisdiction of the NPFMC for Alaska.


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Appendix 1. Overfishing Definitions Contained in Fishery Management Plans

The following definitions are as contained in the Fishery Management Plans, with minor editing changes to maintain consistency of terms. See Appendix 5 for definitions of acronyms used in this appendix.

Atlantic Sea Scallop - Overfishing is defined as a fishing mortality rate that, if continued, results in a spawning stock biomass of 5% of the maximum spawning potential (MSP). The corresponding target fishing mortality (F) will be calculated as a level that will result in a 5% MSP under equilibrium conditions.

Atlantic Salmon - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

American Lobster - The American lobster resource is considered recruitment overfished when, throughout its range, the fishing mortality rate (F), given the regulations in place at that time under the suite of regional management measures, results in a reduction in estimated egg production per recruit to 10% or less of a non-fished population.

The development of the status of the stock report and the evaluation of the fishery induced effects will consider information based upon one or more indices including, but not limited to: Larval abundance index in surface waters; larval settlement index; pre-recruit indices by year-class; landings; size composition of the landings spawning stock biomass; numbers of egg-bearing females; effort levels and catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE); and possible development of relationships of biological parameters to water temperature or other environmental parameters.

Northeast Multispecies

Cod (Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank) - Overfishing occurs when the fishing mortality rate exceeds the rate associated with 20% MSP.

Haddock (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine) - Overfishing is defined for Gulf of Maine haddock as the fishing mortality rate associated with 20% MSP, and for Georges Bank haddock, the fishing mortality rate associated with 30% MSP.

Yellowtail Flounder (Georges Bank, Southern New England, Cape Cod, Middle Atlantic) - Overfishing occurs when the fishing mortality rate exceeds the rate associated with 20% MSP.

American Plaice - Overfishing occurs when the fishing mortality rate exceeds the rate associated with 20% MSP.

Redfish - Overfishing occurs when the fishing mortality rate exceeds the rate associated with 20% MSP.

Witch Flounder - Overfishing occurs when the fishing mortality rate exceeds the rate associated with 20% MSP.

White Hake - Overfishing occurs when the 3-year moving average of the species abundance index from the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey falls below the lowest quartile of the time series.

Pollock - Overfishing occurs when the fishing mortality rate exceeds the rate associated with 20% MSP.

Windowpane Flounder - Overfishing occurs when the 3-year moving average of the species abundance index from the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey falls below the lowest quartile of the time series.

Winter Flounder (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England) - Overfishing occurs when the fishing mortality rate exceeds the rate associated with 20% MSP.

Silver Hake (Gulf of Maine / Northern Georges Bank, Southern Georges Bank / Middle Atlantic) - Overfishing occurs whenever the 4-year running average percent maximum spawning potential (%MSP) is less than the threshold %MSP, which is 31% for the Maine / Northern Georges Bank stock and 42% for the Southern Georges Bank / Mid-Atlantic stock.

Red Hake - Overfishing occurs when the 3-year moving average of the species abundance index from the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey falls below the lowest quartile of the time series.

Ocean Pout - Overfishing occurs when the 3-year moving average of the species abundance index from the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey falls below the lowest quartile of the time series.

Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass

Scup - Overfishing is defined as fishing in excess of Fmax.

Summer Flounder - Overfishing is defined as fishing in excess of Fmax.

Black Sea Bass - Overfishing is defined as fishing in excess of Fmax.

Bluefish (except Gulf of Mexico) - Overfishing is defined as a level of fishing that exceeds the fishing mortality rate that results in the highest sustainable yield (MSY).

Surf Clams and Ocean Quahogs

Surf Clam - The overfishing definition for surf clams is the fishing mortality rate of F20% (20% of MSP).

Ocean Quahog - The overfishing definition for ocean quahogs is the fishing mortality rate of F25% (25% MSP).

Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish

Illex Squid - Overfishing is defined as when the catch associated with a threshold fishing mortality of F20% is exceeded.

Loligo Squid - Overfishing is defined to occur when the catch associated with a threshold fishing mortality rate of Fmax is exceeded.

Atlantic Mackerel - Overfishing is defined as the catch of Atlantic mackerel that exceeds the annual allowable biological catch (ABC) for the species. The fishing mortality rate associated with the total catch of Atlantic mackerel shall not exceed F0.1. ABC is the allowable biological catch in U.S. waters for the upcoming year and C is defined as the quantity of mackerel that is expected to be caught in Canadian waters. ABC + C = Total catch of mackerel. In addition, a spawning stock size (S) of no less than 900,000 mt shall be maintained at the end of the fishing year for which estimates and quotas are being prepared.

Butterfish (Atlantic) - Overfishing is defined to occur when the 3-year moving average of pre-recruits from the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's autumn bottom trawl falls within the lowest quartile of the time series or when the landings exceed a threshold fishing mortality of Fmsy.

Golden Crab - Overfishing is defined as any rate of fishing mortality in excess of Fmsy for golden crab in the South Atlantic Council's management area.

Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic

White Shrimp - Overfishing is indicated when the overwintering white shrimp population within a state's water declines by 80% or more following severe winter weather resulting in prolonged cold water temperatures. Continued fishing following such a decline may reduce the reproductive capacity of the stock affecting subsequent recruitment and would be considered overfishing.

Rock Shrimp - The South Atlantic rock shrimp resource is overfished when the annual landings exceed the value which is two standard deviations above mean landings for the period 1986-1994. This level, based on the more accurate state data, is approximately 6,829,449 pounds, heads on.

Brown Shrimp - The South Atlantic brown shrimp resources are overfished when annual landings fall below two standard deviations below mean landings for the period 1957-1993 for 3 consecutive years (2,946,157 pounds, heads on).

Pink Shrimp - The South Atlantic pink shrimp resources are overfished when annual landings fall below two standard deviations below mean landings for the period 1957-1993 for 3 consecutive years (286,293 pounds, heads on).

South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper

Jewfish

  1. Jewfish are overfished when the stock is below the level of 40% of the spawning stock biomass per recruit that would occur in the absence of fishing.
  2. When jewfish are overfished, overfishing is defined as harvesting at a rate that is not consistent with a program that has been established to rebuild the stock or stock complex to the 40% spawning stock biomass per recruit level.
  3. When jewfish are not overfished, overfishing is defined as a harvesting rate that, if continued, would lead to a state of the stock or stock complex that would not at least allow a harvest of OY on a continuing basis.
  4. The threshold level is 30% SSBR; below this level, no harvest or possession of jewfish is allowed.

Note: The definition of Optimum Yield for jewfish is 40% SSBR.

Nassau Grouper, Vermilion Snapper, Red Porgy, Gag, Red Snapper, Scamp, Speckled Hind, Snowy Grouper, Warsaw Grouper, Golden Tilefish, White Grunt, Black Sea Bass, Gray Triggerfish, Queen Triggerfish, Ocean Triggerfish, Yellow Jack, Blue Runner, Crevalle Jack, Bar Jack, Greater Amberjack, Lesser Amberjack, Almaco Jack, Banded Rudderfish, Spadefish, Black Margate, Porkfish, Margate, Tomtate, Smallmouth Grunt, French Grunt, Spanish Grunt, Cottonwick, Sailors Choice, Blue Stripe Grunt, Hogfish, Puddingwife, Black Snapper, Queen Snapper, Mutton Snapper, Schoolmaster, Blackfin Snapper, Cubera Snapper, Gray Snapper, Mahogany Snapper, Dog Snapper, Lane Snapper, Silk Snapper, Yellowtail Snapper, Blueline Tilefish, Sand Tilefish, Wreckfish, Bank Sea Bass, Rock Sea Bass, Rock Hind, Graysby, Yellowedge Grouper, Coney, Red Hind, Red Grouper, Misty Grouper, Black Grouper, Yellowmouth Grouper, Tiger Grouper, Yellowfin Grouper, Sheepshead, Grass Porgy, Jolthead Porgy, Saucereye Porgy, Whitebone Porgy, Knobbed Porgy, Longspine Porgy, Scup -

  1. A snapper-grouper stock or stock complex is overfished when it is below the level of 30% of the spawning stock biomass per recruit that would occur in the absence of fishing.
  2. When a snapper-grouper stock or stock complex is overfished, overfishing is defined as harvesting at a rate that is not consistent with a program that has been established to rebuild the stock or stock complex to the 30% spawning stock biomass per recruit level.
  3. When a snapper-grouper stock or stock complex is not overfished, overfishing is defined as a harvesting rate that, if continued, would lead to a state of the stock or stock complex that would not at least allow a harvest of OY on a continuing basis.

Note: For a snapper-grouper stock or stock complex, Optimum Yield is defined as 30% SSBR.

Red Drum (Atlantic coast) - Overfishing is defined as a fishing mortality rate that will, if continued, reduce the spawning potential ratio (SPR) below 30% of the level that would exist at equilibrium without fishing.

Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live / Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region

Fire Corals, Hydrocorals, Octocorals, Stony Corals, Black Corals - Overfishing is defined as an annual level of harvest that exceeds optimum yield (OY). OY for coral reefs, stony corals, hydrocorals, black corals, seafans, and live rock is zero, except as may be authorized for scientific and educational purposes. Harvest of allowable octocorals in the EEZ is not to exceed 50,000 colonies per year (Gulf and South Atlantic EEZ combined).

Stone Crab - Overfishing exists when the realized egg production per recruit is reduced below 70% of potential production. Overfishing will be avoided when there is a minimum claw length (length of propodus) that assures survival of the crabs to achieve 70% egg production per recruit potential.

Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico

Brown Shrimp - Recruitment overfishing is indicated where parent stock levels are reduced below 125 million shrimp. This value is slightly lower than the 1983 level of parent stock, which is the lowest observed value since 1960. Parent stock is defined for brown shrimp as the number of age 7+ (months) shrimp during the November through February period.

Pink Shrimp - Recruitment overfishing in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (statistical areas 1-12) is indicated where parent stock levels are reduced below 100 million shrimp. Parent stock is defined for pink shrimp as the number of 5+ (months) shrimp during the July through June period. Pink shrimp in the western U.S. Gulf were not included in this definition because mixed catches of brown and pink shrimp are not separated and are landed, sold, and statistically treated as brown shrimp.

White Shrimp - Recruitment overfishing is indicated where parent stock levels are reduced below 330 million shrimp. Parent stock is defined for pink shrimp as the number of age 7+ (months) shrimp during the May through August period.

Royal Red Shrimp - Recruitment overfishing is defined as fishing greater than optimum yield (OY). OY is set at MSY (maximum sustainable yield), which was estimated to be 392,000 pounds of tails over 1,290 days fished. Royal red shrimp differ from penaeid shrimp in that they are not estuarine dependent but exist in a relatively constant environment in the deeper waters of the Gulf of Mexico (100 to 300 fathoms). Thus, they conform more closely to a classical Schaefer-type fishery.

Rock Shrimp, Seabob Shrimp - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

Coral and Coral Reefs of the Gulf of Mexico

Fire Corals, Hydrocorals, Octocorals, Stony Corals, Black Corals - Overfishing is defined as an annual level of harvest that exceeds optimum yield (OY). OY for coral reefs, stony corals, hydrocorals, black corals, seafans, and live rock is zero, except as may be authorized for scientific and educational purposes. Harvest of allowable octocorals in the EEZ is not to exceed 50,000 colonies per year (Gulf and South Atlantic EEZ combined).

Spiny Lobster Fishery of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

Spiny Lobster - Overfishing exists when the eggs-per-recruit (EPR) ratio of the exploited population to the unexploited population is reduced below 5% and recruitment of small lobsters into the fishery has declined for 3 consecutive fishing years. Overfishing will be avoided when the EPR ratio of exploited to unexploited populations is maintained above 5%.

Slipper Lobster - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

Coastal Migratory Pelagics of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

Gulf and Atlantic group King Mackerel, Gulf and Atlantic group Spanish Mackerel, Cobia A mackerel and cobia stock shall be considered overfished if the spawning potential ratio (SPR) is less than the target level percentage recommended by the assessment panel, approved by the Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) and adopted by the Councils. The target level percentage shall not be less than 20%. Based on the recommendation of the assessment panel and approved by the SSC, the Councils and the Regional Director have approved a SPR of 30% for king and Spanish mackerel. No SPR estimate has been calculated for cobia. In the absence of an SPR estimate, an MSY of 2.2 million pounds is substituted. The MSY is based on the average annual landings (commercial and recreational) for the period 1984 - 1991.

Cero, Dolphin, Little Tunny, Bluefish (Gulf of Mexico only) - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

Reef Fish of the Gulf of Mexico

Red Snapper, Nassau Grouper, Jewfish, Vermilion Snapper, Greater Amberjack, Gray Triggerfish, Queen Triggerfish, Lesser Amberjack, Almaco Jack, Banded Rudderfish, Tomtate, White Grunt, Pigfish, Hogfish, Queen Snapper, Mutton Snapper, Schoolmaster, Blackfin Snapper, Cubera Snapper, Gray (Mangrove) Snapper, Dog Snapper, Mahogany Snapper, Lane Snapper, Silk Snapper, Yellowtail Snapper, Wenchman, Goldface Tilefish, Blackline Tilefish, Anchor Tilefish, Blueline Tilefish, Tilefish, Bank Sea Bass, Rock Sea Bass, Black Sea Bass, Dwarf Sand Perch, Sand Perch, Rock Hind, Speckled Hind, Yellowedge Grouper, Red Hind, Red Grouper, Misty Grouper, Warsaw Grouper, Snowy Grouper, Black Grouper, Yellowmouth Grouper, Gag, Scamp, Yellowfin Grouper, Grass Porgy, Jolthead Porgy, Knobbed Porgy, Littlehead Porgy, Pinfish, Red Porgy - A reef fish stock is overfished when it is below the level of 20% of the spawning potential ratio (SPR) that would occur in the absence of fishing.

When a reef fish stock or stock complex is overfished, overfishing is defined as harvesting at a rate that is not consistent with a program that has been established to rebuild the stock or stock complex to the 20% SPR level.

When a reef fish stock or stock complex is not overfished, overfishing is defined as a harvesting rate that if continued would lead to a state of the stock or stock complex that would not at least allow a harvest of optimum yield on a continuing basis.

Red Drum - (Gulf of Mexico) Overfishing is defined as a fishing mortality that prohibits attaining the spawning stock goal or threshold, which is currently set at a 20% spawning stock biomass ratio.

Spiny Lobster (Caribbean) - A spiny lobster stock or stock complex is overfished when it is below the level of 20% of the Spawning Potential Ratio (SPR).

When a spiny lobster stock or stock complex is overfished, overfishing is defined as the harvesting rate that is not consistent with a program that has been established to rebuild the stock or stock complex to the 20% SPR.

When a spiny lobster stock or stock complex is not overfished, overfishing is defined as a harvesting rate that, if continued, would lead to a state that would not allow harvest at OY on a continuing basis.

The SPR for spiny lobsters is measured in terms of eggs per recruit. For monitoring the SPR, the method described by Gregory et al. (1982) will be used to compare female fecundity by length class within fished areas to that in unfished areas.

Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

Nassau Grouper, Jewfish, Ocean Surgeonfish, Doctorfish, Blue Tang, Frogfish, Flamefish, Conchfish, Trumpetfish, Scrawled Filefish, Queen Triggerfish, Whitespotted Filefish, Ocean Triggerfish, Black Durgon, Sargassum Triggerfish, Redlip Blenny, Peacock Flounder, Yellow Jack, Blue Runner, Horse-eye Jack, Black Jack, Bar Jack, Greater Amberjack, Almaco Jack, Longsnout Butterflyfish, Foureye Butterflyfish, Spotfin Butterflyfish, Banded Butterflyfish, Redspotted Hawkfish, Flying Gurnard, Atlantic Spadefish, Neon Goby, Rusty Goby, Royal Gramma, Porkfish, Margate, Tomtate, French Grunt, White Grunt, Bluestriped Grunt, Squirrelfish, Longspine Squirrelfish, Blackbar Soldierfish, Cardinal Soldierfish, Spanish Hogfish, Creole Wrasse, Yellowcheek Wrasse, Yellowhead Wrasse, Clown Wrasse, Puddingwife, Pearly Razorfish, Green Razorfish, Hogfish, Bluehead Wrasse, Black Snapper, Queen Snapper, Mutton Snapper, Schoolmaster, Blackfin Snapper, Gray Snapper, Dog Snapper, Mahogany Snapper, Lane Snapper, Silk Snapper, Yellowtail Snapper, Wenchman, Vermilion Snapper, Blackline Tilefish, Sand Tilefish, Yellow Goatfish, Spotted Goatfish, Chain Moray, Green Moray, Goldentail Moray, Batfish, Goldspotted Eel, Yellowhead Jawfish, Dusky Jawfish, Spotted Trunkfish, Honeycomb Cowfish, Scrawled Cowfish, Trunkfish, Smooth Trunkfish, Cherubfish, Queen Angelfish, Rock Beauty, Gray Angelfish, French Angelfish, Sergeant Major, Blue Chromis, Sunshinefish, Yellowtail Damselfish, Dusky Damselfish, Beaugregory, Bicolor Damselfish, Threespot Damselfish, Bigeye, Glasseye Snapper, Midnight Parrotfish, Blue Parrotfish, Striped Parrotfish, Rainbow Parrotfish, Princess Parrotfish, Queen Parrotfish, Redband Parrotfish, Redtail Parrotfish, Redfin Parrotfish, Stoplight Parrotfish, High-hat, Jackknife-fish, Spotted Drum, Scorpionfishes, Rock Hind, Graysby, Yellowedge Grouper, Coney, Red Hind, Red Grouper, Misty Grouper, Butter Hamlet, Swissguard Basslet, Yellowfin Grouper, Tiger Grouper, Creole-fish, Greater Soapfish, Orangeback Bass, Lantern Bass, Tobaccofish, Harlequin Bass, Chalk Bass, Caribbean Tonguefish, Sea Bream, Jolthead Porgy, Sheepshead Porgy, Pluma, Seahorses, Pipefishes, Sand Diver, Sharpnose Puffer, Porcupinefish - A reef fish stock or stock complex is overfished when it is below the level of 20% of the spawning stock biomass per recruit (SSBR) that would occur in the absence of fishing.

When a reef fish stock or stock complex is overfished, overfishing is defined as harvesting at a rate that is not consistent with a program that has been established to rebuild the stock or stock complex to the 20% SPR level.

When a reef fish stock or stock complex is not overfished, overfishing is defined as a harvesting rate that, if continued, would lead to a state of the stock or stock complex that would not at least allow a harvest of OY on a continuing basis.

Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

Queen Conch - A queen conch stock is overfished when it is below the level of 20% of the spawning stock biomass per recruit (SSBR) that would occur in the absence of fishing.

When a queen conch stock is overfished, overfishing is defined as harvesting at a rate that is not consistent with a program that has been established to rebuild the stock to the 20% SSBR level.

When a queen conch stock is not overfished, overfishing is defined as a harvesting rate that, if continued, would lead to a state of the stock or stock complex that would not at least allow a harvest of OY on a continuing basis.

Atlantic Triton's Trumpet, Cameo Helmet, Caribbean Helmet, Caribbean Vase, Flame Helmet, Green Star Shell, Hawkwing Conch, Milk Conch, Roostertail Conch, True Tulip, West Indian Fighting Conch, Whelk (West Indian Top Shell) - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

Corals and Reef Associated Invertebrates of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

Sponges, Hydrocorals, Hydroids, Soft Corals, Gorgonian Corals, Hard Corals, Black Corals, Anemones, Colonial Anemones, False Corals, Annelid Worms, other Gastropods, Bivalves, Cephalopods, Crustaceans, Bryozoans, Feather Stars, Sea Stars, Brittle and Basket Stars, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Tunicates, Green Algae, Red Algae, Seagrasses Overfishing is defined as an annual level of harvest that exceeds OY. OY for stony corals, octocorals, live-rock and seagrasses is set at zero, except as may be authorized for scientific research, education and restoration purposes.

Washington, Oregon, and California Salmon

Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon (Columbia River, upriver Summer), Chinook Salmon (Columbia River, upriver Spring), Chinook Salmon (Columbia River, Snake River, Spring), Chinook Salmon (Skagit River, Spring), Chinook Salmon (Skagit River, Summer / Fall), Chinook Salmon (Stillaguamish River, Summer / Fall), Chinook Salmon (Snohomish River, Summer / Fall), Chinook Salmon (Lake Washington), Chinook Salmon (Dungeness River), Coho Salmon (Strait of Juan de Fuca), other Chinook Salmon stocks, other Coho Salmon stocks, Pink Salmon, Sockeye Salmon - Overfishing is an occurrence whereby all mortality, regardless of the source, results in a failure of a salmon stock to meet its annual spawning escapement goal or management objective, as specified in Section 3.5 of the salmon FMP for 3 consecutive years, and for which changes in the fishery management regime offer the primary opportunity to improve stock status. While this condition is defined as overfishing in the broad sense, it is recognized that this situation may also be the result of nonfishing mortality and fishery management actions may not adequately address the situation.

When a specific stock or stock grouping fails to meet its annual spawning escapement objective for 3 consecutive years, the Council shall appoint a work group to investigate the causes of the apparent shortfall (e.g., due to causes within or outside of Council control). The current status of stock productivity and all sources of stock mortality will be examined by the work group and a report of its conclusions and recommendations provided to the Council. For those actions within Council control, the Council may change analytical or procedural methodologies to improve the accuracy of estimates for abundance, harvest impact and MSY escapement levels, and/or to reduce ocean harvest impacts when shown to be effective in stock recovery to MSY levels.

Stocks without specified goals in the FMP are also provided significant protection against overfishing because the Council bases its management on the stock which is first reduced to its annual specified goal level by the fisheries. Such a stock could be the weakest stock or an abundant stock which is heavily impacted by ocean salmon fisheries.

Northern Anchovy - No harvest of any kind when the spawning biomass during the current and preceding season was less than 50,000 mt. Harvests are resumed only when the spawning biomass equals or exceeds 50,000 mt.

Washington, Oregon, and California Groundfish

Lingcod, Canary Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, Shortspine Thornyhead, Bocaccio, Yellowtail Rockfish, Pacific Whiting, Sablefish, Dover Sole, English Sole, Petrale Sole, Chilipepper Rockfish, Shortbelly Rockfish, Longspine Thornyhead, Widow Rockfish, Jack Mackerel, Pacific Cod, Arrowtooth Flounder, Butter Sole, Curlfin Sole, Flathead Sole, Pacific Sanddab, Rex Sole, Rock Sole, Sand Sole, Starry Flounder, Aurora Rockfish, Bank Rockfish, Black Rockfish, Black-and-Yellow Rockfish, Blackgill Rockfish, Blue Rockfish, Bronzespotted Rockfish, Brown Rockfish, Calico Rockfish, China Rockfish, Copper Rockfish, Darkblotched Rockfish, Dusty Rockfish, Flag Rockfish, Gopher Rockfish, Grass Rockfish, Greenblotched Rockfish, Greenspotted Rockfish, Greenstriped Rockfish, Harlequin Rockfish, Honeycomb Rockfish, Kelp Rockfish, Mexican Rockfish, Olive Rockfish, Pink Rockfish, Quillback Rockfish, Redbanded Rockfish, Redstripe Rockfish, Rosethorn Rockfish, Rosy Rockfish, Rougheye Rockfish, Sharpchin Rockfish, Shortraker Rockfish, Silvergray Rockfish, Speckled Rockfish, Splitnose Rockfish, Squarespot Rockfish, Starry Rockfish, Stripetail Rockfish, Tiger Rockfish, Vermilion Rockfish, Yelloweye Rockfish, Yellowmouth Rockfish, Leopard Shark, Soupfin Shark, Spiny Dogfish, Big Skate, California Skate, Longnose Skate, Ratfish, Fingerling Codling, Pacific Rattail, Cabezon, Kelp Greenling, California Scorpionfish, Cowcod, Treefish - Overfishing is defined as exceeding the fishing mortality rate (FOF) that would, in the long term, reduce spawning biomass per recruit to 20% of its unfished level.

When spawning biomass is greater than that which produces MSY, set FOF equal to the greater of F20% and the rate that would, in 1 year, reduce the spawning biomass to the level that produces MSY.

Overfishing parameters to be compared to the standards cannot be estimated for all species because of the wide range of knowledge available for the species managed under the FMP. Three categories of species are identified. The first includes the few species for which a quantitative stock assessment can be conducted on the basis of a catch-at-age or other data. The second category includes a large number of species for which some biological indicators are available, but a quantitative analysis cannot be completed. The third category includes minor species that are caught, but for which there is, at best, only partial information on landed biomass.

Crustaceans of the Western Pacific

Spiny Lobster - Lobster stocks shall be deemed overfished with regard to recruitment when the spawning potential ratio (measured for a specific area) is 0.2 or below.

Slipper Lobster - Lobster stocks shall be deemed overfished with regard to recruitment when the spawning potential ratio (measured for a specific area) is 0.2 or below.

Precious Corals of the Western Pacific

Pink Corals, Gold Corals, Bamboo Corals, Black Corals - An established coral bed shall be deemed overfished with respect to recruitment when the total spawning biomass (all species combined) has been reduced to 20% of its unfished condition.

Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific

Pelagic Armorhead, Squirrelfish Snapper (Main Hawaiian Islands), Longtail Snapper (Main Hawaiian Islands), Seabass (Main Hawaiian Islands), Squirrelfish Snapper (Northwest Hawaiian Islands), Longtail Snapper (Northwest Hawaiian Islands), Silverjaw Jobfish, Gray Jobfish, Bluestripe Snapper, Yellowtail Snapper, Pink Snapper, Yelloweye Snapper, Snapper Pristipomoides sieboldil, Snapper Pristipomoides zonatus, Giant Trevally, Black Jack, Thick Lipped Trevally, Amberjack, Blacktip Grouper, Seabass (Northwest Hawaiian Islands), Lunartail Grouper, Ambon Emperor, Redgill Emperor, Alfonsin, Ratfish - A bottomfish species is recruitment overfished when the Spawning Potential Ratio (i.e., the ratio of the spawning stock biomass per recruit at the current level of fishing (SSBRf) to the spawning stock biomass per recruit that would occur in the absence of fishing (SSBRu)), is equal to or less than .20.

Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific

Yellowfin Tuna (Central Western Pacific), Albacore (South Pacific), Albacore (North Pacific), Yellowfin Tuna (Eastern Tropical Pacific), Skipjack Tuna (Central Western Pacific), Skipjack Tuna (Eastern Tropical Pacific), Striped Marlin, Black Marlin, Bigeye Tuna (Pacific), other Tuna relatives: Auxis spp., Scomber spp., Allothunnus spp., Swordfish (Pacific), Sailfish (Pacific), Shortbill Spearfish (Pacific), Wahoo (Pacific), Mahimahi (Pacific), Blue Marlin (Pacific), Opah, Oilfish, Escolar - A stock is overfished when its spawning potential ratio (SPR) is equal to or less than 0.20. SPR may be estimated in several ways, using estimates of spawning stock biomass, spawning stock biomass per recruit, spawning stock catch per unit of effort, and exploitable stock biomass. The common element for all calculations is the attempt to assess the status of current spawning potential against the spawning potential of an unfished population. The use of a specific measure will depend on the availability of data for the stock and fisheries involved.

Pelagic Sharks - A stock is overfished when its spawning potential ratio (SPR) is equal to or less than 0.35. SPR may be estimated in several ways, using estimates of spawning stock biomass, spawning stock biomass per recruit, spawning stock catch per unit of effort, and exploitable stock biomass. The common element for all calculations is the attempt to assess the status of current spawning potential against the spawning potential of an unfished population. The use of a specific measure will depend on the availability of data for the stock and fisheries involved.

Gulf of Alaska Groundfish

Walleye Pollock, Pacific Cod, Sablefish, Atka Mackerel, Thornyhead Rockfish, Dusky Rockfish, Dover Sole, Flathead Sole, Rex Sole, Arrowtooth Flounder, Pacific Ocean Perch, Shortraker Rockfish, Rougheye Rockfish, Sculpins, Sharks, Skates, Eulachon, Smelts, Capelin, Rock Sole, Rattail, Squid, Octopus, Greenland Turbot, Black Rockfish, Blue Rockfish, Widow Rockfish, Yellowtail Rockfish, Canary Rockfish, China Rockfish, Copper Rockfish, Quillback Rockfish, Rosethorn Rockfish, Tiger Rockfish, Yelloweye Rockfish, Aurora Rockfish, Blackgill Rockfish, Bocaccio Rockfish, Chilipepper Rockfish, Darkblotch Rockfish, Greenstriped Rockfish, Harlequin Rockfish, Pygmy Rockfish, Redbanded Rockfish, Redstripe Rockfish, Sharpchin Rockfish, Shortbelly Rockfish, Silvergray Rockfish, Splitnose Rockfish, Stripetail Rockfish, Vermilion Rockfish, Yellowmouth Rockfish - Overfishing is defined as any amount of fishing in excess of a prescribed maximum allowable rate. This maximum allowable rate is prescribed through a set of six tiers [which are listed in Appendix 4] in descending order of preference, corresponding to descending order of information availability. The SSC will have final authority for determining whether a given item of information is "reliable" for the purpose of this definition, and may use either objective or subjective criteria in making such determinations. For tier (1), a "pdf" refers to a probability density function. For tiers (1-3), the coefficient is set at a default value of 0.05, with the understanding that the SSC may establish a different value for a specific stock of stock complex as merited by the best available scientific information. For tiers (2-4), a designation of the form "FX%" refers to the F associated with an equilibrium level of spawning per recruit (SPR) equal to X% of the equilibrium level of spawning per recruit in the absence of any fishing. If reliable information sufficient to characterize the entire maturity schedule of a species is not available, the SSC may choose to view SPR calculations based on a knife-edge maturity assumption as reliable. For tier (3), the term B40% refers to the long-term average biomass that would be expected under average recruitment and F=F40%.

Alaska Salmon

Pink Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, Chum Salmon, Coho Salmon, Chinook Salmon - Overfishing is defined as any fishing that results in the stock not meeting spawner escapement targets. Escapement targets are set by Alaska Department of Fish and Game and the U.S.-Canada Pacific Salmon Commission so that escapement will not be significantly less than needed to produce MSY. Escapement targets for major stocks of Alaska salmon are continuously evaluated based on new data and improved spawner-recruit databases. The overfishing definition notwithstanding, it is recognized that failure to meet spawner escapements may also be the result of nonfishing mortality and that fishery management actions may not adequately address the situation.

Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Groundfish

Walleye Pollock, Pacific Cod, Yellowfin Sole, Greenland Turbot, Arrowtooth Flounder, Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, Sablefish, Pacific Ocean Perch, Sharpchin / Northern Rockfish, Shortraker / Rougheye Rockfish, Atka Mackerel, Squid, Alaska Plaice, Rex Sole, Butter Sole, Longhead Dab, Dover Sole, Starry Flounder, Rattails, Shortspine Thornyhead, Sculpins, Sharks, Skates, Eulachon, Smelts, Capelin, Octopus, Dusky Rockfish, Darkblotched Rockfish, Yelloweye Rockfish, Blue Rockfish - Overfishing is defined as any amount of fishing in excess of a prescribed maximum allowable rate. This maximum allowable rate is prescribed through a set of six tiers [which are listed in Appendix 4] in descending order of preference, corresponding to descending order of information availability. The SSC will have final authority for determining whether a given item of information is "reliable" for the purpose of this definition, and may use either objective or subjective criteria in making such determinations. For tier (1), a "pdf" refers to a probability density function. For tiers (1-3), the coefficient is set at a default value of 0.05, with the understanding that the SSC may establish a different value for a specific stock of stock complex as merited by the best available scientific information. For tiers (2-4), a designation of the form "FX%" refers to the F associated with an equilibrium level of spawning per recruit (SPR) equal to X% of the equilibrium level of spawning per recruit in the absence of any fishing. If reliable information sufficient to characterize the entire maturity schedule of a species is not available, the SSC may choose to view SPR calculations based on a knife-edge maturity assumption as reliable. For tier (3), the term B40% refers to the long-term average biomass that would be expected under average recruitment and F=F40%.

Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs

Blue King Crab (Pribilof Islands, Saint Matthew Island, Saint Lawrence Island), Brown King Crab (Aleutians, Pribilof Islands, Northern District), Red King Crab (Bristol Bay, Norton Sound, Pribilof Islands, Aleutians), Bering Sea Snow Crab, Tanner Crab [Bering Sea, Eastern Aleutians, Adak (Western Aleutians)] - Overfishing is defined as any rate of fishing mortality in excess of Fmsy for king and Tanner crab stocks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area. Three tiers are characterized for this definition according to the data available to quantify maximum fishing mortality rate. Each of the 17 stocks in the management area is assigned to one of the tiers.

  • Tier 1) Data available: Historical catch, sporadic inseason catch and effort data, and mortality. Overfishing for stocks with tier 1 data is defined as a fishing mortality rate in excess of Fmsy, where the maximum allowable fishing mortality rate is estimated to equal the natural mortality rate of mature male crab. Inseason fishing mortality rate may be based on a change in the inseason ratio of CPUE of legal to mature male crab or a proportionate reduction in average weekly CPUE.
  • Tier 2) Data available: Historical catch, continuous inseason catch and effort data, and mortality. Overfishing for stocks with tier 2 data is defined as a fishing mortality rate in excess of FMSY, where the maximum allowable fishing mortality rate is estimated to equal the natural mortality rate of mature male crab. Inseason fishing mortality rate may be based on inseason CPUE and cumulative catch or legal male crab.
  • Tier 3) Data available: Historical catch, continuous inseason catch and effort data, stock assessment, stock-recruitment, growth, maturity, and mortality parameters. Overfishing for stocks with tier 3 data is defined as a fishing mortality rate in excess of FMSY, where the maximum allowable fishing mortality rate for these stocks cannot exceed FMSY estimated as F0.1, based on the size of first maturity for male crabs. Guideline harvest levels are estimated annually for tier 3 stocks, therefore the fishing mortality rate is established prior to a fishery.

Alaska Scallops - Overfishing is defined as landings that exceed the optimum yield (OY) specified for the scallop fishery. The long-term OY for the scallop resource in Federal waters off Alaska (all species) is specified as a numerical range. In the absence of biomass estimates needed to implement an exploitation rate harvest strategy, the OY is specified as the long-term productivity. The OY range is zero to 1.8 million lbs (814 mt) of shucked scallop meats, and is derived from historical catches from State and Federal waters off Alaska. The low end of the range is the lowest catch on record (zero pounds in 1978). The high end of the OY approximates the highest catch taken from the waters off Alaska since the "fishing up" period (1.8 million pounds in 1993). While the FMP covers harvests of all scallop species appearing in Alaska, only weathervane scallops Patinopecten caurinus have been harvested commercially in Federal waters off Alaska since the emergence of the fishery in the late 1960s.

Atlantic Swordfish - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

Atlantic Billfishes

Blue Marlin (North Atlantic) - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

White Marlin (North Atlantic) - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

Sailfish (West Atlantic) - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

Spearfish (West Atlantic) - No overfishing definition exists in the FMP.

Atlantic Sharks

Sandbar Shark, Blacktip Shark, Dusky Shark, Spinner Shark, Silky Shark, Bull Shark, Bignose Shark, Narrowtooth Shark, Galapagos Shark, Night Shark, Caribbean Reef Shark, Tiger Shark, Lemon Shark, Sand Tiger Shark, Bigeye Sand Tiger Shark, Nurse Shark, Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Great Hammerhead Shark, Smooth Hammerhead Shark, Whale Shark, Basking Shark, White Shark, Atlantic Sharpnose Shark, Caribbean Sharpnose Shark, Finetooth Shark, Blacknose Shark, Smalltail Shark, Bonnethead Shark, Atlantic Angel Shark, Shortfin Mako Shark, Longfin Mako Shark, Porbeagle Shark, Thresher Shark, Bigeye Thresher Shark, Blue Shark, Oceanic Whitetip Shark, Sevengill Shark, Sixgill Shark, Bigeye Sixgill Shark -

1. When a stock size is at a level that is determined, based on the best scientific information available, to be sufficient to produce MSY on a continuing basis, overfishing is defined as a fishing mortality rate (F) that exceeds the fishing mortality rate that would produce MSY on a continuing basis (FMSY).

2. When the stock size is below the level that is determined, based on the best scientific information available, to be sufficient to produce MSY on a continuing basis, overfishing is defined as a fishing mortality rate that exceeds the rate that is consistent with a rebuilding program established under the FMP.


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Appendix 2. Overfishing Definitions for Species not Contained in Federal Fishery Management Plans

Pacific Halibut - A rate of fishing that exceeds the constant exploitation yield. The constant exploitation yield is computed using a harvest rate of 0.20 of the exploitable biomass (8-year+ Pacific halibut).


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Appendix 3. Overfishing Definitions from Fishery Management Plans Under Development

See Appendix 5 for definitions of acronyms used in this appendix.

Atlantic Herring - Overfishing occurs when the fishing mortality rate exceeds the rate associated with 20% MSP. This definition is contained in the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission's Atlantic Herring FMP. There is currently no Federal FMP for Atlantic herring.

Monkfish - Monkfish in the northern and southern management areas are defined as being overfished when the 3-year moving average autumn survey weight per tow falls below the 33rd percentile of the time series for 1963-1994, or when the 3-year moving average autumn survey weight per tow falls below the median of the 3-year moving average during the period 1965-1981 and when fishing mortality is between Ftarget and Fthreshold. This definition has been adopted by the New England Fishery Management Council and has been certified by the National Marine Fisheries Service as an acceptable overfishing definition. There is currently no Federal FMP for monkfish.


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Appendix 4. Six Tiers comprising the Overfishing Definition for Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Groundfish

See Appendix 5 for definitions of acronyms used in this appendix.

1) Information available: Reliable point estimates of B and BMSY and reliable pdf of FMSY.

a. Stock status: B/BMSY > 1

    FOFL= A, the arithmetic mean of the pdf

    FABC H, the harmonic mean of the pdf


b. Stock status: < B/BMSY 1

    FOFL = A x (B/BMSY - ) / (1 - )

    FABC H x (B/BMSY - ) / (1 - )

    1c) Stock status: B/BMSY

    FOFL = 0

    FABC = 0

2) Information available: Reliable point estimates of B, BMSY, FMSY, F30%, and F40%.

a. Stock status: B/BMSY > 1

    FOFL = FMSY x (F30% / F40%)

    FABC FMSY


b. Stock status: < B/BMSY 1

    FOFL = FMSY x (F30% / F40%) x (B/BMSY - ) / (1 - )

    FABC FMSY x (B/BMSY - ) / (1 - )


c. Stock status: B/BMSY

    FOFL = 0

    FABC = 0

3) Information available: Reliable point estimates of B, B40%, F30%, and F40%.

a. Stock status: B/B40% > 1

    FOFL = F30%

    FABC F40%


b. Stock status: a < B/B40% 1

    FOFL = F30% x (B/B40% - ) / (1 - )

    FABC F40% x (B/B40% - ) / (1 - )


c. Stock status: B/B40%

    FOFL = 0

    FABC = 0

4) Information available: Reliable point estimates of B, F30%, and F40%.

FOFL = F30%

FABC F40%

5) Information available: Reliable point estimates of B and natural mortality rate M.

FOFL = M

FABC 0.75 x M

6) Information available: Reliable catch history from 1978 through 1995.

OFL = the average catch from 1978 through 1995, unless an alternative value is established by the SSC on the basis of the best available scientific information.

ABC 0.75 x OFL


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Appendix 5. Acronyms used in Appendices

- The ratio between two stock sizes: (1) the stock size below which the fishery must be closed and (2) the long-term average stock size that would be expected in the absence of fishing. In the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Groundfish FMPs, is typically equal to 0.05.

ABC - Allowable Biological Catch - A term that refers to the range of allowable catch for a species or species group. It is set each year by a scientific group. The ABC estimates are used to set the annual total allowable catch (TAC).

ASMFC - Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission - Serves as a deliberative body of the Atlantic coastal states, coordinating the conservation and management of nearshore fishery resources, including marine, shell, and anadromous species.

B - The weight (biomass) of a group of fish.

BMSY - The average stock size that would be expected if the fishing mortality rate were held equal to FMSY for a long time.

CFMC - Caribbean Fishery Management Council.

CPUE - Catch Per Unit of Effort - The number of fish caught by an amount of effort. Typically, effort is a combination of gear type, gear size, and length of time gear is used. Catch per unit of effort is often used as a measurement of relative abundance.

EEZ - Exclusive Economic Zone - All waters from the seaward boundary of coastal states out to 200 nautical miles.

EPR - Eggs-Per-Recruit - The average number of eggs produced by an individual fish that has been recruited, i.e., that moved into a certain class, such as the spawning class or fishing-size class. Used as an index of abundance.

F - Fishing Mortality Rate - The proportion of the stock that is removed (per unit of time) by the fishery. The fishing mortality rate may be expressed in either discrete or instantaneous terms (an instantaneous fishing mortality rate is analogous to continuous compounding of interest).

FABC - The level of fishing mortality that results in the allowable biological catch.

FMAX - The fishing mortality rate that maximizes lifetime yield from a cohort.

FMSY - The fishing mortality rate that maximizes long-term average yield from a stock.

FOF - The level of fishing mortality defined as overfishing.

FOFL - The fishing mortality rate above which overfishing is defined to occur (see FOF).

F20% - The level of fishing mortality that results in a spawning potential ratio of 20% of the maximum.

F25% - The level of fishing mortality that results in a spawning potential ratio of 25% of the maximum.

F30% - The level of fishing mortality that results in a spawning potential ratio of 30% of the maximum.

F40% - The level of fishing mortality that results in a spawning potential ratio of 40% of the maximum.

F0.1 - The fishing mortality rate where an additional unit of effort provides a catch equal to one-tenth of the CPUE that would be observed if stock size were at its pristine level (i.e., the highest possible CPUE).

FMP - Fishery Management Plan - A plan to achieve specified management goals for a fishery prepared under the authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.

GMFMC - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council.

GSMFC - Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission - Serves as a deliberative body of the Gulf of Mexico coastal states, coordinating the conservation and management of nearshore fishery resources, including marine, shell, and anadromous species.

HMS - Highly Migratory Species Division - Develops fishery policies designed to manage any highly migratory species (tuna species, marlin, oceanic sharks, sailfishes, and swordfish) fishery that is within the geographical authority of more than one Council.

MAFMC - Middle-Atlantic Fishery Management Council.

MSP - Maximum Spawning Potential - See SPR.

MSY - Maximum Sustainable Yield - The largest long-term average catch or yield that can be taken from a stock or stock complex under prevailing ecological and environmental conditions.

NEFMC - New England Fishery Management Council.

NPFMC - North Pacific Fishery Management Council.

OY - Optimum Yield - The amount of fish that: (1) will provide the greatest overall benefit to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and recreational opportunities, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems; (2) is prescribed on the basis of the MSY from the fishery, as reduced by any relevant economic, social, or ecological factors; (3) in the case of an overfished fishery, provides for rebuilding to a level consistent with producing the MSY in such fishery.

PDF - Probability Density Function - A description of the probability that a variable takes a specified value.

PFMC - Pacific Fishery Management Council.

SAFE - Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation - A document or set of documents that provides Councils with a summary of the most recent biological condition of species in the fishery management unit, and the social and economic condition of the recreational and commercial fishing interests and the fish processing industries. It summarizes, on a periodic basis, the best available scientific information concerning the past, present, and possible future condition of the stocks and fisheries being managed under Federal regulation.

SAFMC - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council.

SPR - Spawning Potential Ratio - The number of eggs that could be produced by an average recruit in a fished stock, divided by the number of eggs that could be produced by an average recruit in an unfished stock. SPR can also be expressed as the spawning stock biomass per recruit (SSBR) of a fished stock divided by the SSBR of the stock before it was fished.

SSB - Spawning Stock Biomass - The total weight of the fish in a stock that are old enough to spawn.

SSBR - Spawning Stock Biomass Per Recruit - The spawning stock biomass divided by the number of recruits to the stock, or how much spawning biomass an average recruit would be expected to produce.

SSC - Scientific and Statistical Advisory Committee - A group of scientific and technical people giving advice to a council.

WPFMC - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council.

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