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Endangered and Threatened Marine Species under NMFS' Jurisdiction

Approximately 2,245 species are listed as endangered or threatened under the ESA. Of these species, about 650 are foreign species, found only in areas outside of the U.S. and our waters.

We have jurisdiction over 139 endangered and threatened marine species, including 49 foreign species. We work with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to manage ESA-listed species. Generally, we manage marine species, while USFWS manages land and freshwater species.

Marine Mammals (26 listed "species")

Manatees and sea otters are also listed under the ESA, but fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

(E = "endangered"; T = "threatened"; F = "foreign"; n/a = not applicable)

Species Year
Listed
Status Critical
Habitat
*
Recovery
Plan
*
Cetaceans
dolphin, Chinese River / baiji
(Lipotes vexillifer)
1989 E (F) n/a n/a
dolphin, Indus River
(Platanista minor)
1991 E (F) n/a n/a
porpoise, Gulf of California harbor / vaquita
(Phocoena sinus)
1985 E (F) n/a n/a
whale, beluga (1 listed DPS)
(Delphinapterus leucas)
  • Cook Inlet
2008 E final draft
whale, blue
(Balaenoptera musculus)
1970 E n/a final
whale, bowhead
(Balaena mysticetus)
1970 E n/a n/a
whale, false killer (1 listed DPS)
(Pseudorca crassidens)
  • Main Hawaiian Islands Insular
2012 E no no
whale, fin
(Balaenoptera physalus)
1970 E n/a final
whale, gray (1 listed DPS)
(Eschrichtius robustus)
  • Western North Pacific
1970 E (F) n/a n/a
whale, humpback
(Megaptera novaeangliae)
1970 E n/a final
whale, killer (1 listed DPS)
(Orcinus orca)
  • Southern Resident
2005 E final final
whale, North Atlantic right
(Eubalaena glacialis)
 
original listing as "northern right whale"  -
2008


1970
E


E
final final
whale, North Pacific right
(Eubalaena japonica)
 
original listing as "northern right whale"  -
2008


1970
E


E
final final
whale, sei
(Balaenoptera borealis)
1970 E n/a final
whale, Southern right
(Eubalaena australis)
1970 E (F) n/a n/a
whale, sperm
(Physeter macrocephalus)
1970 E n/a final
Pinnipeds
sea lion, Steller (1 listed DPS)
(Eumetopias jubatus)
  • Western

    original listing -
1997

1990
E

T
final final
seal, bearded (1 listed DPS)
(Erignathus barbatus)
  • Okhotsk
2012 T (F) n/a no
seal, Guadalupe fur
(Arctocephalus townsendi)
1985 T n/a n/a
seal, Hawaiian monk
(Neomonachus schauinslandi)
1976 E final final
seal, ringed (4 listed subspecies)
(Phoca hispida)
       
  • Baltic
    (Phoca hispida botnica)
2012 T (F) n/a no
  • Okhotsk
    (Phoca hispida ochotensis)
2012 T (F) n/a no
  • Ladoga
    (Phoca hispida ladogensis)
2012 E (F) n/a no
  • Saimaa
    (Phoca hispida saimensis)
1993 E (F) n/a n/a
seal, Mediterranean monk
(Monachus monachus)
1970 E (F) n/a n/a
seal, spotted (1 listed DPS)
(Phoca largha)
  • Southern
2010 T (F) n/a n/a


Sea Turtles & Other Marine Reptiles (26 listed "species")

(E = "endangered"; T = "threatened"; F = "foreign"; n/a = not applicable)

Species Year
Listed
Status Critical
Habitat
*
Recovery
Plan
*
Sea Turtles
turtle, green (11 listed DPSs)
(Chelonia mydas)
» original listing - 1978
  • North Atlantic
2016 T final final *
  • Mediterranean
2016 E(F) n/a no
  • South Atlantic
2016 T no final *
  • Southwest Indian
2016 T(F) n/a no
  • North Indian
2016 T(F) n/a no
  • East Indian-West Pacific
2016 T(F) n/a no
  • Central West Pacific
2016 E no final *
  • Southwest Pacific
2016 T(F) n/a no
  • Central South Pacific
2016 E no final *
  • Central North Pacific
2016 T no final *
  • East Pacific
2016 T no final *
turtle, hawksbill
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
1970 E final final
turtle, Kemp's ridley
(Lepidochelys kempii)
1970 E n/a final
turtle, leatherback
(Dermochelys coriacea)
1970 E final final
turtle, loggerhead (9 listed DPSs)
(Caretta caretta)
» original listing - 1978
    no final
  • Mediterranean Sea
2011 E (F)  n/a n/a
  • North Indian Ocean
2011 E (F) n/a n/a
  • North Pacific Ocean
2011 E no final
  • Northeast Atlantic Ocean
2011 E (F) n/a n/a
  • Northwest Atlantic Ocean
2011 T final final
  • South Atlantic Ocean
2011 T (F) n/a n/a
  • South Pacific Ocean
2011 E (F) n/a n/a
  • Southeast Indo-Pacific Ocean
2011 T (F) n/a n/a
  • Southwest Indian Ocean
2011 T (F) n/a n/a
turtle, olive ridley (2 listed populations^)
(Lepidochelys olivacea)
  • Mexico's Pacific coast breeding colonies
1978 E n/a final
  • all other areas
1978 T n/a final
Other Marine Reptiles
sea snake, dusky
(Aipysurus fuscus)
2015 E (F) n/a no

^ These populations were listed before the 1978 ESA amendments that restricted population listings to "distinct population segments of vertebrate species."

* Recovery plan written prior to the identification of DPSs


Fish (Marine & Anadromous) (59 listed "species")

(E = "endangered"; T = "threatened"; F = "foreign"; XN = "nonessential experimental population"; n/a = not applicable)

Species Year
Listed
Status Critical
Habitat
*
Recovery
Plan
*
bocaccio (1 listed DPS)
(Sebastes paucispinis)
  • Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin
2010 E final no
cardinalfish, Banggai
(Pteropogon kauderni)
2016 T(F) n/a no
coelacanth, African (1 listed DPS)
(Latimeria chalumnae)
  • Tanzanian
2016 T(F) n/a no
eulachon, Pacific / smelt (1 listed DPS)
(Thaleichthys pacificus)
       
  • Southern DPS
2010 T final no
rockfish, canary (1 listed DPS)
(Sebastes pinniger)
  • Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin
2010 T final no
rockfish, yelloweye (1 listed DPS)
(Sebastes ruberrimus)
  • Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin
2010 T final no
salmon, Atlantic (1 listed DPS)
(Salmo salar)
  • Gulf of Maine


    original listing -
2009
(expanded)

2000

 
E final draft
salmon, Chinook (9 listed ESUs & 1 XN)
(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
  • California coastal
1999** T final draft
  • Central Valley spring-run
1999** T final final
  • Central Valley spring-run in the San Joaquin River, CA
2013 XN n/a -
  • Lower Columbia River
1999** T final final
  • Upper Columbia River spring-run
1999** E final final
  • Puget Sound
1999** T final final
  • Sacramento River winter-run
1994** E final final
  • Snake River fall-run
1992** T final draft
  • Snake River spring/ summer-run
1992** T final in process
  • Upper Willamette River
1999** T final final
salmon, chum (2 listed ESUs)
(Oncorhynchus keta)
  • Columbia River
1999** T final final
  • Hood Canal summer-run
1999** T final final
salmon, coho (4 listed ESUs)
(Oncorhynchus kisutch)
  • Central California coast

    original listing -
2005**

1996**
E

T
final final
  • Lower Columbia River
2005** T final final
  • Oregon coast
2008 T final draft
  • Southern Oregon & Northern California coasts (SONCC)
1997** T final final
salmon, sockeye (2 listed ESUs)
(Oncorhynchus nerka)
  • Ozette Lake
1999** T final final
  • Snake River
1991** E final final
sawfish, dwarf
(Pristis clavata)
2014 E (F) n/a no
sawfish, green
(Pristis zijsron)
2014 E (F) n/a no
sawfish, largetooth
(Pristis pristis) (formerly P. perotteti, P. pristis, and P. microdon)
2014 E no no
sawfish, narrow
(Anoxypristis cuspidata)
2014 E (F) n/a no
sawfish, smalltooth (2 listed DPSs)
(Pristis pectinata)
  • U.S. portion of range
2003 E final final
  • Non-U.S. portion of range
2014 E (F) n/a no
shark, scalloped hammerhead (4 listed DPSs)
(Sphyrna lewini)
  • Central & Southwest Atlantic
2014 T no no
  • Eastern Atlantic
2014 E (F) n/a no
  • Eastern Pacific
2014 E no no
  • Indo-West Pacific
2014 T no no
sturgeon, Adriatic
(Acipenser naccarii)
2014 E (F) n/a no
sturgeon, Atlantic (5 listed DPSs)
(Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)
  • Gulf of Maine
2012 T no no
  • New York Bight
2012 E no no
  • Chesapeake Bay
2012 E no no
  • Carolina
2012 E no no
  • South Atlantic
2012 E no no
sturgeon, Chinese
(Acipenser sinensis)
2014 E (F) n/a no
sturgeon, European
(Acipenser sturio)
2014 E (F) n/a no
sturgeon, green (1 listed DPS)
(Acipenser medirostris)
  • Southern DPS
2006 T final in process
sturgeon, Gulf
(Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi)
1991 T final final
sturgeon, Kaluga
(Huso dauricus)
2014 E (F) n/a no
sturgeon, Sakhalin
(Acipenser mikadoi)
2014 E (F) n/a no
sturgeon, shortnose
(Acipenser brevirostrum)
1967 E n/a final
totoaba
(Totoaba macdonaldi)
1979 E (F) n/a n/a
trout, steelhead (11 listed DPSs & 1 XN)
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Puget Sound
2007 T final no
  • Central California coast
1997** T final draft
  • Snake River Basin
1997** T final in process
  • Upper Columbia River

    original listing -
    change in status -
    court reinstated status -
2009+

1997**  
2006**  
2007+
 
T

E
T
E
final final
+ reinstated to endangered status per U.S. District Court decision in June 2007;reclassified to threatened [pdf] per U.S. District Court order in June 2009
  • Southern California
1997** E final final
  • Middle Columbia River
1999** T final final
  • Middle Columbia River
2013 XN n/a  
  • Lower Columbia River
1998** T final final
  • Upper Willamette River
1999** T final final
  • Northern California
2000** T final draft
  • South-Central California coast
1997** T final final
  • California Central Valley
1998** T final final

**All Pacific salmonid listings were revisited in 2005 and 2006. Only the salmonids whose status changed as a result of the review will show the revised date; for all others, only the original listing date is shown. For more information on the listing history, please click on the link for each ESU/DPS.



Marine Invertebrates (27 listed "species")

(E = "endangered"; T = "threatened"; F = "foreign"; n/a = not applicable)

Species Year
Listed
Status Critical
Habitat
*
Recovery
Plan
*
Abalone
abalone, black
(Haliotis cracherodii)
2009 E final no
abalone, white
(Haliotis sorenseni)
2001 E not prudent [pdf] final
Corals
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora globiceps)
2014 T no no
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora jacquelineae)
2014 T no no
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora lokani)
2014 T (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora pharaonis)
2014 T (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora retusa)
2014 T no no
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora rudis)
2014 T (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora speciosa)
2014 T no no
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora tenella)
2014 T (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Acropora spinosa)
2014 T (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Cantharellus noumeae)
2015 E (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Euphyllia paradivisa)
2014 T no no
coral, [no common name]
(Isopora crateriformis)
2014 T no no
coral, [no common name]
(Montipora australiensis)
2014 T (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Pavona diffluens)
2014 T (F) no no
coral, [no common name]
(Porites napopora)
2014 T (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Seriatopora aculeata)
2014 T no no
coral, [no common name]
(Siderastrea glynni)
2015 E (F) n/a no
coral, [no common name]
(Tubastraea floreana)
2015 E (F) n/a no
coral, boulder star
(Orbicella franksi)
2014 T no no
coral, elkhorn
(Acropora palmata)
2006 T final final
coral, lobed star
(Orbicella annularis)
2014 T no no
coral, mountainous star
(Orbicella faveolata)
2014 T no no
coral, pillar
(Dendrogyra cylindrus)
2014 T no no
coral, rough cactus
(Mycetophyllia ferox)
2014 T no no
coral, staghorn
(Acropora cervicornis)
2006 T final final

 


Marine Plants (1 listed "species")

(E = "endangered"; T = "threatened"; F = "foreign"; n/a = not applicable)

Species Year
Listed
Status Critical
Habitat
*
Recovery
Plan
*
Johnson's seagrass
(Halophila johnsonii)
1999 T final final


* NOTE: Critical habitat cannot be designated in foreign waters; critical habitat is also not required for species listed prior to the 1978 ESA amendments that added critical habitat provisions. Recovery plans for sea turtles are developed and implemented by NMFS and USFWS; the plans have been written separately for turtles in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (and East Pacific for the green turtle) rather than for each listed species. Bowhead whales are exempt from recovery planning.


Endangered and Threatened Species Under NMFS' Jurisdiction:

Additional Species:

Updated: May 10, 2016